2018 |

## № 10 (october) 2018 |

- BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
- Principles of Systematization of Norms and Rules for Calculation of Structures for Preparation of "Manual for Design of Steel Structures of Multi-Storey Buildings"
- UDC 624.014.2:69.07

**Ivan I. VEDYAKOV**, e-mail: dtsniisk@rambler.ru

**Denis V. KONIN**, e-mail: konden@inbox.ru

JSC Research Center of Construction, Research Institute of Building Constructions (TSNIISK) named after V. A. Koucherenko, 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The paper provides a brief overview of domestic and foreign guidelines (manuals) for the design of steel structures. The necessity of development of actual manual corresponding to modern level of development of construction science, regulatory documents and design practices is substantiated. The most rational nodes and beam cells are presented. The principles of systematization of norms and rules for the calculation of structures are given. Calculations for the first group of limit states of elements of the structure are made in strict accordance with acting norms. Tables and graphs of the Manual can be used at preliminary appointment of design scheme parameters, assessing the efficiency of designed structures, as well as when examining design and construction documentation without direct calculations.

**Key words**: steel structures, design rules, systematization, typing, unification, multi-storey buildings, manual, calculation, bending, compression, column, I-beam, pipe, roll-welded tube. - REFERENCES

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13. Vedyakov I. I., Konin D. V., Odesskiy P. D. Stalnyye konstruktsii vysotnykh zdaniy [Steel structures of high-rise buildings]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2014. 271 p. (In Russian).

14. Odesskiy P. D., Konin D. V., et al. Hot-rolled products of high strength I-beam profile with parallel sides of shelves for mass application of building structures. Stal, 2017, no. 6, pp. 56-63. (In Russian).

15. Konin D. V., Artamonov V. A., et al. The introduction of new grades of profiles and steels of different strength grade on the examples of the most sought-after building. Stroitelnaya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2016, no. 2(265), pp. 71-75. (In Russian). **For citation**: Vedyakov I. I., Konin D. V. Principles of systematization of norms and rules for calculation of structures for preparation of "Manual for design of steel structures of multi-storey buildings".*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 4-13. (In Russian).- Covering Design over Stadiums Tribunes of "A Bicycle Wheel" Type
- UDC 624.014.2

**Pavel G. YEREMEYEV**, e-mail: eremeevpg@rambler.ru

JSC Research Center of Construction, Research Institute of Building Constructions (TSNIISK) named after V. A. Koucherenko, 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Bearing structures of large-span coverings over tribunes of stadiums of "a bicycle wheel" type are considered. The list of sports facilities with application of such structures is given. The principle of the structure operation, its advantages and disadvantages are described; a comparison of a body weight of a traditional console design of coverings over tribunes of stadiums and the construction of "a bicycle wheel" type is made. The main variants of the structural forms of the system considered and the schematic diagrams of the static operation of the structure and the individual elements that make up this system are presented. Features of the calculation of designs of coverings of "a bicycle wheel" type are reflected. The issues of ensuring the stability of the coating structure, the perception of wind and seismic loads (at their presence), as well as temperature effects are analyzed. The most rational roofing solutions are given. The basic issues of manufacturing and installation of coverings, requirements to materials applied, first of all to ropes, are considered. The sequence of the installation of the cable roof of a "bicycle wheel" type is described. Examples of stadiums built in Russia with the use of a "bicycle wheel" type structures are given.

**Key words**: coverings of "bicycle wheel" type, structural forms, tribunes of stadiums, static operation of structure, cable truss. - REFERENCES

1. Boom I. Tensile-compression ring: A study for football stadia roof structures [Растянуто-сжатое кольцо: исследования конструкций покрытий футбольных стадионов]. Delft University of Technology. 2012, 320 p.

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11. Eremeev P. G. Sovremennye konstrukcii pokrytij nad tribunami stadionov [The modern design of coverings over the stands of stadiums]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2015. 236 p. (In Russian).

12. Bцgl M. Outstanding Roof Structures. [Выдающиеся конструкции покрытий]. Brochures, 2014, no. 9, 66 p. **For citation**: Yeremeyev P. G. Covering Design over Stadiums Tribunes of "A Bicycle Wheel" Type.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 14-21 (In Russian).- Evaluation of Impact Strength of Steels for Metal Structures
- UDC 691.714

**Ivan. I. VEDYAKOV**, e-mail: dtsniisk@rambler.ru

**Pavel D. ODESSKIY**, e-mail: odesskiy@tsniisk.ru

**Sergey V. GUROV**, e-mail: x25xe@mail.ru

JSC Research Center of Construction, Research Institute of Building Constructions (TSNIISK) named after V. A. Koucherenko, 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Andrey A. SOSKOV**, e-mail: a.soskov@steel-development.ru

Steel Construction Development Assosiation's Engineering Center, ul. Ostozhenka, 19, str. 1, Moscow 119034, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. It is considered how the design of the sample during the impact bending tests affects the efficiency of evaluation of the visco-brittle transition of steels for building metal structures with different strength, as well as with different degree of dispersion of the structure and purity of the metal by harmful impurities and non-metallic inclusions. It is shown that the effectiveness of impact bending tests for assessing the fracture resistance of structural steels is due to the fact that such tests simulate the possibility of steel transition from a viscous state to a brittle state in the range of climatic temperatures. The main factors that contribute to the visco-brittle transition in steels and the minimum number of simultaneously acting such factors, deterministically providing a visco-brittle transition, and, in particular, acting in shock bending tests in the range of climatic temperatures are discussed. The conditions for ensuring the sensitivity of these tests to adverse changes in the microstructure are described. In order to ensure the required sensitivity, the issues of compliance with the principles of structural similarity in the tests are raised. It is explained that when the dispersion of the structure increases, the volume-stress state at the top of the cut should be toughened. The influence of the degree of contamination of the metal and the grain boundary density on the occurrence and propagation of cracks when testing for impact bending, as well as the requirements for compliance with the degree of grinding of the structure and improve the purity of the metal are considered. The necessity of using specimens with a concentrator in the form of a fatigue crack for the correct estimation of impact viscosity of modern steels with micron grain and high purity by harmful impurities is shown.

**Кеу words**: steels for building structures, fracture resistance, impact viscosity, design of specimen, microstructure, metal purity. - REFERENCES

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16. Vedyakov I. I., Odesskij P. D. Steel of the third generation for building metal structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 7, pp. 5-11. (In Russian). **For citation**: Vedyakov I. I., Odesskiy P. D., Gurov S. V., Soskov A. A. Evaluation of Impact Strength Steels for Metal Structures.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 22-34. (In Russian).- Bearing Capacity of Facade Systems at Different Wind Loads
- UDC 69.04(075.8)

**Vladimir A. RYBAKOV**, e-mail: fishermanoff@mail.ru

**Alexander V. GALYAMICHEV**, e-mail: galyamichev@yandex.ru

**Konstantin S. DERIUGIN**, e-mail: deriuginkonstantin@gmail.com

**Marina A. PUSHKARSKAYA**, e-mail: m.pushkarskaia@gmail.com

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, ul. Politekhnicheskaya, 29, St. Petersburg 195251, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Results of the study of the bearing capacity of hinged ventilated facades(HVF) as well as their elements under different wind loads are presented. The calculation is carried out in a certain sequence: determining the geometric characteristics of the selected types of sections, selecting structural and design schemes for HVF, load summary for the design schemes, determining the limiting value of active and passive wind pressure for all types of circuits, determining the coefficients for the use of cross-section brackets and extensions corresponding to the limit value active and passive wind pressure. The geometric characteristics of the cross sections of the guides were calculated taking into account the reduction and the possible local loss of stability of the individual elements of the section experiencing normal compressive stresses. The calculation was made for 5 types of longitudinal structural schemes; the maximum height of the fastening of the facade system depending on the wind load was also determined. It is established that the most efficient calculation scheme for hinged faзade system is a 5-span beam regardless of the mounting position of the joint.

**Key words**: facade panels, bracket, guides, light steel thin-walled structures, wind load, climatic regions, bearing capacity. - REFERENCES

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9. Khlobystov S. A. The main types of ventilated facade systems, the most effective for the Russian Federation and for St. Petersburg by the criteria of heat and energy efficiency. Vestnik sovremennoy nauki, 2016, no. 9(21), pp. 62-69. (In Russian).

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15. Lalin V., Rybakov V., Sergey A. The finite elements for design of frame of thin-walled beams. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2014, vol. 578-579, pp. 858-863

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20. Galyamichev A. V. Wind load and its effect on facade structures. Stroitelstvo unikalnykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy, 2017, no. 9(60), pp. 44-57. (In Russian).

21. Galyamichev A. V. Specificity of definition of loads on enclosing structures and its influence on the results of their static calculation. Internet-zhurnal Naukovedeniye, 2015, vol. 7, no. 2(27), pp. 96. DOI: 10.15862/54TVN215. (In Russian).

22. Perelmuter A. V., Yurchenko V. V. On the issue structural analysis of spatial systems from thin-walled bars with open profiles. Metallicheskiye konstruktsii, 2014, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 179-190. **For citation**: Rybakov V. A., Galyamichev A. V., Deriugin K. S., Pushkarskaya M. A. Bearing Capacity of Facade Systems at Different Wind Loads.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 35-40. (In Russian).- Stress-Strain State of Attachment Point of Curtain Frame Wall with Cladding on the Basis of Steel Cold-Bent Profile
- UDC 692.2

**Tatiana V. NAZMEEVA**, e-mail: naztv@mail.ru

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, ul. Polytechnicheskaya, 29, St. Petersburg 195251, Russian Federation

**Aleksandr D. SIVOKHIN**, e-mail: a1sivokhin@gmail.com

Bilfinger Tebodin B.V., 2-y Syromyatnichesky per., 1, Moscow 105120, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. External curtain frame wall with cladding on the basis of the frame of steel cold-bent galvanized profile is a promising direction in building. During their construction, there are no "wet" processes, the total labor intensity is reduced compared with the walls of brick or aerated concrete. There are several types of frame walls with cladding, depending on the method of manufacturing the wall and the method of coupling with the bearing structures. External walls of high-rise buildings are subjected to significant wind and ice loads. The technical solution of the attachment points of the frame of these walls to the bearing structures requires a detailed study as well as accounting the thinness of sections of the frame studs. The results of the study of the stress-strain state of the fastening unit of the frame rack to the reinforced concrete slab with due regard for the loads acting on it with the use the finite element method are presented. The Abaqus software package was used for numerical simulation.

**Key words**: frame wall with cladding, thin-walled steel cold-bent profile, bearing capacity, stress-strain state of attachment point, numerical simulation. - REFERENCES

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10. Galyamichev A. V. Wind load and its action on facade structures. Stroitel'stvo unikal'nyh zdanij i sooruzhenij, 2017, no. 9(60), pp. 44-57. (In Russian).

11. Gorohov E. V., Kuznecov S. G., Vasylev V. N., Lozinskij EH. A., Drozdov A. A. Wind load on high-rise building. Metallicheskie konstrukcii, 2011, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 225-235. (In Russian).

12. Lalin V. V., Rozin L. A., Kushova D. A. Variational formulation of the plane problem of geometrically nonlinear deformation and stability of elastic rods. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyj zhurnal, 2013, no. 1(36), pp. 87-96. (In Russian).

13. Silant'ev A. S. Calculation of strength of oblique sections of flexural reinforced concrete elements using the finite-element method in KE-complexes Ansys and Abaqus. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 2, pp. 49-52. (In Russian).

14. Vatin N., Bagautdinov R., Andreev K. Advanced method for semi-rigid joints design [Усовершенствованный метод проектирования полужестких соединений]. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2015, vol. 725-726, Pp. 710-715.

15. Ajrumyan E. L., Belyj G. I. Investigation of operation of a steel truss made of cold-formed sections taking into account their local and general stability. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 5, pp. 41-44. (In Russian).

16. Tusnina O. A., Danilov A. I. The stiffness of rigid joints of beam with hollow section column [Жесткость рамных узлов сопряжения ригеля с колонной коробчатого сечения]. Инженерно-строительный журнал, 2016, no. 4, pp. 40-51. DOI: 10.5862/MCE.64.4

17. Nazmeeva T. V. Bearing capacity of compressed continuous and perforated steel members of C-shaped cold-formed profiles. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyj zhurnal, 2013, no. 5, pp. 44-51. (In Russian).

18. Trubina D., Abdulaev D., Pichugin E., Rybakov V. Geometric nonlinearity of the thin-walled profile under transverse bending [Геометрическая нелинейность тонкостенного профиля при поперечном изгибе]. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2014, no. 633-634, pp. 1133-1139. **For citation**: Nazmeeva T. V., Sivokhin A. D. Stress-Strain State of Attachment Point of Curtain Frame Wall with Cladding on the Basis of Steel Cold-Bent Profile.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 41-45. (In Russian).- Standard Steel Frame of a 5-Story Building
- UDC 691.418

**Alexander R. TUSNIN**, e-mail: tusninar@mgsu.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Peter A. VARAKSIN**, e-mail: varaksinpa@yandex.ru

MV-Project, 4th Vyatsky per., 22A, str. 1, Moscow 127287, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Most of the residential development's buildings are buildings of up to 5 floors. These were often built using brickwork or prefabricated reinforced concrete. Recently, such buildings in our country are built of monolithic reinforced concrete. A promising area in construction is the erection of low-rise buildings with the use of steel structures. A distinctive feature of the steel frame is light weight, which reduces the load on the foundation and improves the performance of the frame under the action of seismic loads. It is noted that for the successful use of steel frames in buildings of mass development is necessary to develop standard designs. To ensure the complete assembly of the frame and exclude the wet processes, overlappings of typical buildings with a steel frame are rationally made of prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs. The features of work and design solutions of a standard steel frame of a five-storey building with an attic, developed at the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, are considered. Typical steel frame structures have a simple design, maximum factory readiness and minimum weight. In addition, the use of such structures provides the reduction in the construction time and cost of the building.

**Key words**: typical steel frame, 5-storey buildings, bearing cell of frame, columns, bracings, beams, bolted joints. - REFERENCES

1. NP 1.1-63. Pomeshcheniya kvartirnyh zhilyh domov [Premises of apartment houses]. Moscow, 1963. 63 p. (In Russian).

2. Harrell T. J., Pinon J. P., Shane C. D. Building enclosure design for modular construction. 3rd Residential building design and construction conference (March 2-3, 2016). State College, Pennsylvania, pp. 12-28.

3. Ganiron Jr T.U., Almarwae M. Prefabricated technology in a modular house. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 2014, vol. 73, pp. 51-74. (In Russian).

4. Gavrilova A. I., Guteneva S. V. Low-rise construction of buildings using steel structures. Vestnik SevKavGTI, 2009, no. 9, pp. 17-18. (In Russian).

5. Tusnina V. M. Prospects of construction of affordable and comfortable housing on the basis of steel frameworks. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 6, pp. 43-46. (In Russian).

6. Gavrilova A. I., Guteneva S. V. Low-rise construction of buildings with the use of steel structures in the regions of seismic and complex soil conditions. Sb. nauch. tr. po materialam Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. "Perspektivy razvitiya nauki i obrazovaniya" [Collection of scientific papers on the materials of the International scientific-practical conference "Prospects of science and education"]. Tambov, 2013, vol. 3, pp. 30-32. (In Russian).

7. Tusnin A. R. Steel framework of a low-rise building. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 11, pp. 18-22. (In Russian).

8. Tusnin A. R. Floors of Multi-Storey Buildings with Steel Frames. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 8, pp.10-14. (In Russian).

9. Hart F., Henn V., Zontag H. Atlas stal'nyh konstrukcij. Mnogoehtazhnye zdaniya [Atlas of steel structures. Multistory building]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1977. 351 p. (In Russian).

10. Tusnina O. A. Structural solutions of joints of a steel frame for low-rise residential buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 11, pp. 23-27. (In Russian). **For citation**: Tusnin A. R., Varaksin P. A. Standard Steel Frame of a 5-Story Building.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 45-49. (In Russian).- BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
- Thin-Layer Coatings for Fire Protection of Steel Building Structures
- UDC 614.841.3

**Yury V. KRIVTSOV**, e-mail: krivtsov.cniisk@mail.ru

**Ivan I. VEDYAKOV**, e-mail: ctsniisk@rambler.ru

**Irina R. LADYGINA**, e-mail: ladigina.cniisk@yandex.ru

**Eugeny N. NOSOV**, e-mail: nosov.cniisk@yandex.ru

JSC Research Center of Construction, Research Institute of Building Constructions (TSNIISK) named after V. A. Koucherenko, 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Abstraction**. The results of theoretical and experimental studies to justify the optimal formulation of compositions for thin-layer fire-retardant coatings of steel building structures are presented. More than 30 flame retardant coatings based on liquid-glass binders of the "Firex" series, on organic emulsions of the "Joker" series and epoxy-based "Leader" series have been developed. Studies were performed with due regard for the set of operational requirements for steel building structures, such as resistance to moisture, corrosive environments, as well as to seismic shocks. All compositions are manufactured from domestic raw materials and components. The technological process of compositions production and their application is based on the use of domestic equipment and tools. Therefore the cost of compositions is significantly lower compared to imported analogues. The compositions considered have been successfully operated for a long time at many objects of general civil and special purpose.

**Key words**: steel building structures, thin-layer fire retardant coatings, organic emulsions, operation conditions. - REFERENCES

1. Rjazanova G. N., Gorelov S. A. Analysis of perspective fire-retardant coatings of steel structures. Traditsii i innovatsii v stroitel'stve i arhitekture [Traditions and innovations in construction and architecture]. Samara, SGASU, 2016, pp. 284-286. (In Russian)

2. Baryshnikov A. A., Gorelov S. A., Mustafin N. Sh. Analysis of perspective fire-retardant coatings of steel structures. Regional'noe razvitie, 2016, no. 2, pp. 6. (In Russian).

3. Bronzova M.K., Garifullin M.R. Fire resistance of thin-walled cold-formed steel structures. Stroitel'stvo unikal'nyh zdanij i sooruzhenij, 2016, no. 3 (42), pp. 61-78.

4. Bod K., Seshe M., Font`eno S., Frim A., Zhukov R. Fire-retardant coatings: the latest developments in functional coatings saving lives. Lakokrasochnye materialy i ih primenenie, 2017, no. 6, pp. 20-27. (In Russian).

5. Krivtsov Ju. V., Ladygina I. R., Kolesnikov P. P. Modern methods of fireproofing of steel and reinforced concrete structures. Vestnik AO "NITs "Stroitel'stvo", 2017, no. 3(14), pp. 134-143. (In Russian).

6. Krivtsov Ju. V. Contemporary means of fire protection. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 9, pp. 5-7. (In Russian).

7. Kislov G. G., Egorova V. A. Influence of components properties of fire-retardant foaming coatings on fire resistance of steel structures. Materialy III regional'noj molodezhnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem "Aktual'nye problemy sovremennoj nauki" [Materials of the III regional youth scientific and practical conference with international participation "Actual problems of modern science"]. Omsk: OmGTU Publ., 2014, pp. 6-9. (In Russian).

8. Halturinskij N. A., Krupkin V. G. Fire-retardant intumescent coating - thermal insulation mechanism. Gorenie i vzryv, 2012, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 204-209. (In Russian).

9. Halturinskij N. A., Kudrjavtsev Ju. A. Fire retardant intumescent coatings. Gorenie i vzryv, 2014, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 223-225. (In Russian). **For citation**: Krivtsov Yu. V., Vedyakov I. I., Ladygina I. R., Nosov E. N. Thin-Layer Coatings for Fire Protection of Steel Building Structures.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 50-53. (In Russian).- Rolled Products with Coatings of Novolipetsk Metallurgical Combine for Construction
- UDC 691.714

**Denis A. KOVALEV**, e-mail: kovalev_da@nlmk.com

**Gennady I. BUGAKOV**,**Vladislav A. BELOUSOV**,**Artem A. IVANENKO**

NLMK, pl. Metallurgov, 2, Lipeck 398040, Russian Federation - Technological Capacities of EVRAZ Metallurgical Combines: New Products for the Construction Industry
**Misiuk D. A.**- "Severstal" is a Leader of Innovations in the Construction Industry of Russia
- Construction of Underground Parking with Effective Thermal Insulation PENOPLEX® and Reliable Waterproof Insulation PLASTFOIL®GEO
**Zherebtsov A. V.**- INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN CONSTRUCTION
- Selection of Reinforcement for Floor Slabs Using Software Packages LIRA-SAPR, SCAD, LIRA-10
- UDC 624.012.4-183.2

**Artem A. DAVIDYUK**, e-mail: artemd@ktbbeton.com

**Evgeny А. ARTEMYEV**, e-mail: e.artemiev@ktbbeton.com

**Svyatoslav V. SHOKOT**, e-mail: s.shokot@ktbbeton.com

Design-Technological Bureau of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete (JSC "KTB RC"), 2nd Institutskaya ul., 6, str. 15A, 109428 Moscow, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. For the selection of reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures, software systems are used, in which various algorithms are adopted, depending on the applied theory of reinforcement selection. The implementation of even identical theories of calculation in software systems are different, so the important issue is the justification for the selection of the reinforcement and checking of the executed reinforcement. The paper presents the results of the calculation of reinforcement of beamless and beam floor slabs. Calculations were made with due regard the first limit state only and as well as calculations for the first and second limit state. Software complexes LIRA-SAPR, SCAD, LIRA 10 were used for calculations. The presented results of reinforcement are verified by calculations according to the current SP 63.13330.2012 " SNiP 52-01-2003 Concrete and reinforced concrete structures. Basic provisions". On the basis of the results obtained, the conclusion about the adequacy of the applied reinforcement is made, recommendations for carrying out verification calculations of structures are given.

**Key words**: calculation of overlap, verification calculation, reinforcement of overlap, stress-strain state of overlap, software complexes LIRA-SAPR, SCAD, LIRA 10. - REFERENCES

1. Karpenko N. I. Teoriya deformirovaniya zhelezobetona s treshchinami [Theory of deformation of reinforced concrete with cracks]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1976. 196 p. (In Russian).

2. Wood R. H. Plastic and elastic design of slabs and plates. London, Thames, 1961. 344 p.

3. Gorodeckij D. A., Barabash M. S., Vodop'yanov R. Yu., et al. Programmnyj kompleks LIRA-SAPR [The software package LIRA-SAPR]. Kiev, Moscow, 2013. 376 p. (In Russian).

4. Help program complex SCAD Office. Available at: https://scadsoft.com/help/SCAD/ru/index.htm#t=SCAD1049%2Fsection_armoring_of_concrete_structure.htm (acceessed 26.08.2018). (In Russian).

5. Karpenko N. I., Karpenko S. N. On the diagram method of calculation of deformation of rod elements and its special cases. Beton i zhelezobeton, 2012, no. 6, pp. 20-27. (In Russian).

6. Simbirkin V. N., Matkovskij V. V. To the calculation of stress-strain state and strength of reinforced concrete structures at normal section. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenij, 2010, no. 4, pp. 20-26. (In Russian).

7. Karpenko N. I., Kruglov V. M., Solov'ev L. Yu. Nelinejnoe deformirovanie betona i zhelezobetona [Nonlinear deformation of concrete and reinforced concrete]. Novosibirsk, SGUPS Publ., 2001. 276 p. (In Russian).

8. Solov'ev L. Yu. Nonlinear model of concrete based on the theory of plastic flow. Sistemy. Metody. Tekhnologii, 2014, no. 4(24), pp. 131-140. (In Russian). **For citation**: Davidyuk A. A., Artemyev E. А., Shokot S. V. Selection of Reinforcement for Floor Slabs Using Software Packages LIRA-SAPR, SCAD, LIRA 10.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 69-73. (In Russian).- Modeling of Junction of a Round Column with a Flat Plate with the Use of "Abaqus" Complex
- UDC 692.45:69.003.13

**Aleksandr S. SILANTEV**, e-mail: silantievas@structure.center

**Egor A. LUCHKIN**, e-mail: luchkinea@structure.center

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Method of calculation and the results of solving a number of problems for the joint of a flat beamless floor slab with a round column are presented. Some cases of loading - with different values of bending moments and without them, as well as variants of longitudinal reinforcement in compressed and stretched zones are considered. The results are compared with the data obtained by the refined calculation method based on the joint use of the nonlinear deformation model and the theory of strength and plasticity. The stress-strain state of the node was investigated, the characteristic isofields of stresses and deformations in the area of the junction of a round column with a plate for samples with and without bending moment in the column were obtained, the nature of the fracture and the bearing capacity of the node for punching were determined. It is established that the longitudinal compressed and stretched reinforcement, as well as the bending moment in the column affect the limit value of the punching force.

**Key words**: bearing capacity of flat slab for punching, nonlinear deformation model, strength and plasticity theory, bending moment in column, longitudinal reinforcement, dowel effect, inclined sections, finite element method, shear deformations. - REFERENCES

1. Zalesov A. S. Soprotivlenie zhelezobetonnykh elementov pri deystvii poperechnykh sil. Teoriya i novye metody rascheta prochnosti [Resistance of reinforcement concrete elements under the action of shear forces. Theory and new methods of estimation of strength capacity]. Diss. dokt. Moscow, 1978. 345 p. Available at: http://gbk.com.ru/cloud/public.php?service=files&t=985dc6a2ef69490247138d0172e46953 (accessed 24.08.2018). (In Russian).

2. Korovin N. N., Stupkin A. V. Prodavlivanie fundamentov kolonnami [Punching of foundation slabs by column]. Trudy NIIZhB [Proc. NIIZhB], 1974, vol. 10, pp. 4-24. (In Russian).

3. Sokurov A. Z. Prodavlivanie ploskikh zhelezobetonnykh plit, usilennykh poperechnoy armaturoy [Punching of flat reinforcement concrete slabs, which strengthening by shear reinforcement]. Diss. Moscow, 2015. 155 p. Available at: http://gbk.com.ru/cloud/public.php?service=files&t=28afe5743a10ae8186c7dd099906f20e (accessed 24.08.2018). (In Russian).

4. Reinck H., Beutel R., et al. Punching of structural concrete slabs. Luasanne, Switzerland, FIB, 2001. 307 p.

5. Silant'ev A. S. Calculation of strength of oblique sections of flexural reinforced concrete elements using the finite-element method in KE-complexes Ansys and Abaqus. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 2, pp. 71-74. (In Russian).

6. Geniev G. A., Kissyuk V. N., Tyupin G. A. Teoriya plastichnosti betona i zhelezobetona [Theory of plasticity of concrete and reinforced concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1974. 316 p. (In Russian).

7. Silantev A. S., Luchkin E. A. The use of the nonlinear deformation model for calculation of punching strength of the slab by a round column. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2018, no. 7, pp. 28-34. (In Russian).

8. Krueger G., Burdet O., Favre R. Punching tests on RC flat slabs with eccentric loading. 2nd Intern. Ph. D. Symposium in Civil Engineering. Budapest, 1998. pp. 1-8.

9. Kyoung-Kyu Choi, Hong-Gun Park. Shear strength model for Interior flat plate-column connections. Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 345-356. **For citation**: Silantev A. S., Luchkin E. A. Modeling of Junction of a Round Column with a Flat Plate with the Use of "Abaqus" Complex.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 74-79. (In Russian).- BASES AND FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
- Designing of Slab Foundations for Buildings oWeak Bases in Seismic Zones Using the Eurocode Methods
- UDC 692.1

**Amirlan A. KUSSAINOV**, e-mail: info@kazgasa.kz

**Vitaliy A. KHOMYAKOV**, e-mail: Khomyakov57@list.ru

**Valeriya V. GUMENYUK**, e-mail: v.gumenyuk@kazgasa.kz

Kazakh Leading Architectural and Civil Engineering Academy, 28, Ryskulbekov street, Almaty 050043, Republic of Kazakhstan

**Abstract**. The article examines the problems of erecting buildings under the complex engineering-geological conditions on the example of a multi-storey building with a three-storey underground part constructed on a weak and collapsible soil. The method of calculation of the strengthened base on the basis of application of the principles of the Eurocode is presented. Based on physical modeling with the use of special vibrating chute, laboratory research in the effectiveness of weak soil strengthening with the help of vertical reinforcing elements was conducted. Strengthening involves the arrangement in soil of special rolled-out wells filled with low-strength cement. A comparative analysis of the results of calculations of the slab foundation of a multi-storey building on a natural and reinforced base, including seismic actions in accordance with SNiP 2.03.30-2006 "Construction in seismic regions. Design regulations." and on the new regulatory framework identical to the Eurocodes, according to SN RK EN 1998-1: 2004/2012 "Design of seismic structures", was made. Calculations were performed using modern software complexes Lira SAPR and Midas.

**Key words**: base, foundation, soil reinforcement, well, seismic action, response spectrum. - REFERENCES

1. Abakanov M. S. On the improvement of the norms on earthquake-resistant construction of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Trudy Evrazijskogo foruma po sejsmicheskoj bezopasnosti sooruzhenij i gorodov [Proc. of the Eurasian forum on the seismic safety of structures and cities]. Moscow, 2017. (In Russian). Available at: http://2017.seismo.ru./files/Abakanov.pdf (accessed 21.05.2018).

2. Esenberlina D. I., Uteshov D. S. Eurocodes are a safe construction in Kazakhstan. Vestnik KazGASA, 2014, no. 2(52), pp. 183-185. (In Russian).

3. Fomin A. P., Shchukin S. N. Accelerate the consolidation of weak soils. Avtomobil'nye dorogi, 2015, no. 6(1003), pp. 86-89. (In Russian).

4. Akin M. K. Experimental studies on the physic-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silty soils. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 2016, vol. 116, pp. 190-197.

5. Ter-Martirosyan Z. G., Ter-Martirosyan A. Z., Sidorov V. V. Experience of transformation of weak water-saturated soils using piles of finite stiffness. Vestnik MGSU, 2018, vol. 13, iss. 3(114), pp. 271-281. (In Russian).

6. Kirsch K., Kirsch F. Ground improvement by deep vibratory methods. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017, 234 p.

7. Croce P., Flora A., Modoni G. Jet Grouting. Technology, design and control. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2014, 302 p.

8. Gьllь H. Comparison of rheological models for jet grout cement mixtures with various stabilizers. Construction and Building Materials, 2016, vol. 127, pp. 220-236.

9. Birbaer A. N. Raschet konstrukcij na sejsmostojkost [Seismic analysis of structures]. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 1998. 253 p. (In Russian).

10. Abelev M. Yu., Abelev K. M. Geotechnical studies of construction sites, composed of weak, water-saturated clay soils. Geotekhnika, 2010, no. 6, pp. 30-33. (In Russian).

11. Barksdale R. D., Bachus R. C. Desing and construction of stone columns. FHWA/RD-83/026, US Department of Transportation, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 1983. 194 p.

12. EN 14731:2005E CEN. Execution of special geotechnical works - ground treatment by deep vibration.

13. Priebe H. J. Die Bemessung von Rьttelstopfverdichter. Bautechnik, 1995, no. 3, vol. 72, pp. 183-191.

14. Kusainov A. A., Khomyakov V. A., Gumenyuk V. V. The use of the generalized computational model of a soil foundation in geotechnical calculations. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 7, pp. 51-56. (In Russian).

15. Khomyakov V. A., Abdenbay S. B. Analysis of the stability of a multi-storey building for seismic impacts. Vestnik KazGASA, 2018, no. 1(67), pp. 173-178. (In Russian).

16. Medvedev S. V., Karapetyan B. K., Byhovskij V. A. Sejsmicheskie vozdejstviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya. Rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu sejsmostojkih zdanij i sooruzhenij [Seismic impacts on buildings and structures. Guidelines for the design of earthquake-resistant buildings and structures]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1970. Vol. 1. 191 p. (In Russian). **For citation**: Kussainov A. A., Khomyakov V. A., Gumenyuk V. V. Designing of Slab Foundations for Buildings on Weak Bases in Seismic Zones Using the Eurocode Methods.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 81-88. (In Russian).- Providing the Durability of Hydrotechnical Piles Submerged by Compact Methods
- UDC 624.157

**Anatoliy A. GONCHAROV**, e-mail: goncharovaa@mgsu.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The main factors of influence on the durability of piles immersed by impact methods and operated in contact with an aggressive environment are given. On the basis of the analysis of previous works on this issue and the conducted studies, the main activities that need to be carried out when designing and executing works for construction of pile foundations in the area of aggressive environment are formulated. The main condition for ensuring the integrity of piles when driving and the subsequent durability is to limit the dynamic stresses acting during installation. Modern hydraulic hammers make it possible to adjust the dynamic stresses within the specified admissible limits. To ensure that piles can be submerged at an increased value of the acting stresses, it is also necessary to increase the concrete strength class to a value not lower than B40. In this case, the pre-stress of the reinforcement should not exceed 0.23 of the prismatic strength of concrete. To prevent corrosion of reinforcement it is necessary to introduce additives-corrosion inhibitors into the concrete. When the pile comes into contact with a corrosive environment, waterproof coatings must be used during installation.

**Key words**: dynamic stresses, dynamic module of concrete elasticity, micro-destructions, boundaries of micro-cracks formation, shock pulse, healing of micro-defects, potentiometric measurements, depassivation of reinforcement. - REFERENCES

1. Gladkov V. S., Goncharov A. A., Egorycheva T. K. About influence of compression stresses on durability of concrete and reinforced concrete. Tr. CNIIS "Voprosy dolgovechnosti betona transportnyh sooruzhenij" [Proc. CNIIS "Questions of durability of concrete of transport constructions"]. Moscow, 1979, pp. 17-19. (In Russian).

2. Moskvin V. M., Kapkin M. M., Mazur B. M., Podval'nyj A. M. Stojkost' betona i zhelezobetona pri otricatel'noj temperature [Resistance of concrete and reinforced concrete at negative temperature]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1967. 106 p. (In Russian).

3. Goncharov A. A., Ivanov F. M. Frost resistance of concrete of different strength, loaded with compression. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo, 1969, no. 6, pp. 8-11. (In Russian).

4. Gladkov V. S., Goncharov A. A. Recommendations for improving the durability of prestressed concrete piles for offshore structures. Tr. CNIIS, no. 69. [Proc. CNIIS]. Moscow, 1970, pp. 23-27. (In Russian).

5. Gladkov V. S., Goncharov A. A. Research of durability of reinforced concrete piles. Tr. CNIIS "Primenenie zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij v surovyh klimaticheskih usloviyah" [Proc. CNIIS "Application of reinforced concrete structures in severe climatic conditions"]. Moscow, 1974, no. 78, pp. 112-117. (In Russian).

6. Goncharov A. A., Veselov A. V. Influence of parameters of immersion of reinforced concrete piles on the subsequent frost resistance of concrete. Tr. 2-go Koordinacionnogo soveshchaniya "Tekhnologiya vozvedeniya svajnyh fundamentov" [Proc. "Technology of construction of pile foundations"]. Vladivostok, 1988, pp. 34-36. (In Russian).

7. Goncharov A. A., Al' Hamaui M. Influence of parameters of immersion of reinforced concrete piles on the subsequent safety of steel reinforcement. Tr. Vsesoyuznoj konferencii "Aktual'nye problemy v stroitel'stve" [Proc. All-Union conference "Actual problems in construction"]. Voronezh, 1987, pp. 76-79. (In Russian).

8. Goncharov A. A. Limitation of dynamic stresses during pile driving. Sb. tr. nauchno-tekhnicheskoj konferencii Instituta stroitel'stva i arhitektury MGSU [Proc. of the scientific and technical conference of the Institute of Construction and Architecture]. Moscow, 2010, pp. 190-192. (In Russian).

9. Romanovskij D. V., Zinov'ev V. N. Investigation of concrete micro-cracking under repeated cyclic loading and unloading by ultrasonic pulse method. 3-ya Vserossijskaya (2-ya Mezhdunarodnaya) konferenciya po betonu i zhelezobetonu [3rd all-Russian (2nd international) conference on concrete and reinforced concrete]. Moscow, 2014, vol. 1, pp. 94-106. (In Russian).

10. Selyaev V. P., Novichkov P. I., Novichkova E. N., Kimyaeva E. V. Stress state in concrete due to reinforcement corrosion. Materialy konf. "Dolgovechnost' stroitel'nyh materialov, izdelij i konstrukcij" [Materials of the conference "Durability of building materials, products and structures"]. Saransk, MGU, pp. 127-135. (In Russian).

11. Migunov V. N., Ovchinnikov I. G., SHamshina K. V. Methods and results of experimental electrochemical studies on direct models of reinforced concrete elements of the influence of variable load on the corrosion of reinforcement in the calculated transverse cracks of concrete. Internet-zhurnal "Naukovedenie", 2015, no. 4, p. 86. (In Russian).

12. Migunov V. N., Shamshina K. V. Methods and results of long-term experimental tests of direct models of reinforced concrete elements to study the effect of variable and constant load under the influence of liquid chloride-containing medium on the kinetics of electrochemical and physical characteristics of corrosion of reinforcement in the transverse cracks of the protective layer of concrete. Sb. statej 15 Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-tekhnicheskoj konferencii [Collection of articles of 15 International scientific and technical conference]. Penza, 2015, pp. 146-149. (In Russian).

13. Goncharov A. Corrosion of valves in precast piles. Proc. of Conference FarEastCon, Vladivostok, 2017. **For citation**: Goncharov A. A. Providing the Durability of Hydrotechnical Piles Submerged by Compact Methods.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 89-94. (In Russian).- STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
- Designing the Protection of Buildings and Structures Against Progressive Collapse in View of the Emergence of a Special Limiting State
- UDC 721.011.004.6:699.8

**Emil N. KODYSH**, e-mail: kodyshe@gmail.com

Central Scientific Research and Project Experimental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Constructions, Dmitrovskoe shosse, 46, korp. 2, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. On the basis of the analysis of the previously used reference documents in our country, the 5 general principles of protection against progressive collapse laid down in them are formulated. The foreign experience in protection is also examined and the similarity of the calculated principles of American norms and Eurocode is shown. There are 3 commonly used basic methods of protection. The analysis of new regulatory documents showed the presence of contradictions in them. The article presents the results of an experimental computational analysis of the protection against the progressive collapse of reinforced concrete multi-storey buildings of various structural schemes according to the normative documents of 2017-2018 and stresses the complexity of implementing the protection of single-storey manufacturing buildings. In order to minimize the costs of measures to protect buildings from progressive collapse, several proposals are given, which, after consideration, can be fixed in regulatory documents. The final part raises the issue of the transition to the most promising method for calculating the protection of buildings against progressive collapse - probabilistic. The introduction of this method, starting with the base calculation, in addition to the economic effect, will improve the reliability and ensure the specified durability.

**Key words**: progressive collapse, special limiting state, stability, local destruction, bearing structures, level of responsibility, probabilistic method. - REFERENCES

1. Kodysh E. N., Trekin N. N., Chesnokov D. A. Protection of multistory buildings from progressing collapse. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2016, no. 6, pp. 8-13. (In Russian).

2. Travush V. I., Kolchunov V. I., Klyueva N. V. Some directions of development of survivability theory of structural systems of buildings and structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 3, pp. 4-9. (In Russian).

3. Bondarenko V. M., Kolchunov V. I. The concept and directions of development of the theory of structural safety of buildings and structures under the Influence of force and environmental factors. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 2, pp. 28-31. (In Russian).

4. Kolchunov V. I., Osovskih E.V., Al'kadi S. A. Deformation and destruction of reinforced concrete frame-rod structural systems of multi-storey buildings under beyond-limit conditions. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 8, pp. 73-77. (In Russian).

5. Travush V. I., Fedorova N. V. Survivability parameter calculation for framed structural systems. Russian Journal of Building Construction and Architecture, 2017, no. 1(33), pp. 6-14.

6. Kodysh E. N., Trekin N. N. Sustainability of precast concrete braced frame buildings from progressive collapse. Predotvrashchenie avarij zdanij i sooruzhenij [Сollection of science works "The prevention of accidents of building and constructions"]. Moscow, 2009, pp. 142-146. (In Russian).

7. Almazov V. O., Plotnikov A. I., Rastorguev B. S. Problems of building resistance to progressive collapse. Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 2-1, pp. 16-20. (In Russian). **For citation**: Kodysh E. N. Designing the Protection of Buildings and Structures Against Progressive Collapse in View of the Emergence of a Special Limiting State.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 95-101. (In Russian).- Limit State of Building Structures and Critical Energy Levels
- UDC 624.046

**Leonid U. STUPISHIN**, e-mail: lusgsh@yandex.ru

Southwest State University, ul. 50 let Oktyabrya, 94, Kursk 305040, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The concept of "limit state" for more than half a century is actively used by engineer-builders in project practice and entered into the normative documentation all over the world. Nevertheless, in engineering calculations and other areas of project activity, it has not become decisive. One of the reasons for this is the inadequate elaboration of the theoretical base connected with an attempt to cover a large number of phenomena that describe the loss of the bearing capacity of the structure. If we ask ourselves how many limit states can describe the load-bearing capacity of building structures, then it is hardly possible to expect the same responses from different specialists, not only in terms of their quantity, but also in content. This suggests that the formulation of limit states is based on hypotheses, the number of which can't be limited. This implies the complexity of the mathematical formalization of phenomena from a single point of view. The article proposes an approach to describing the limit state of structures as a phenomenological phenomenon on the basis of the criterion of critical energy levels. The problem of determining the extreme rigidity values of the system is formulated as an eigenvalue problem. An example of determining the main values of the rigidity of the truss and the corresponding vectors of external influences is presented. With the help of the considered criterion of critical energy levels, it is possible to build an algorithm for the study of complex systems with due regard for the issues of strength, stability and oscillations.

**Key words**: bearing capacity of structures, limit state of structure, criterion of critical energy levels, extreme states of structures, main directions of impacts on system. - REFERENCES

1. Perel'muter A. V. Izbrannye problemy nadezhnosti i bezopasnosti stroitel'nyh konstrukcij [Selected problems of reliability and safety of building structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007. 255 p. (In Russian).

2. Aleksandrov A. V., et al. Metody rascheta sterzhnevyh sistem, plastin i obolochek s ispol'zovaniem EVM [Methods of calculation of rod systems, plates and shells using computers]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1976. Vol. 1. 248 p. (In Russian).

3. Rzhanicyn A. R. Raschet sooruzhenij s uchetom plasticheskih svojstv materialov [Calculation of structures taking into account the plastic properties of materials]. Moscow, Gostrojizdat Publ., 1954. 283 p. (In Russian).

4. Rzhanicyn A. R. Stroitel'naya mekhanika [Structural mechanics]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1982. 400 p. (In Russian).

5. Bazhenov V. A., Perel'muter A. V., Shishov O. V. Stroitel'naya mekhanika. Komp'yuternye tekhnologii i modelirovanie [Structural mechanics. Computer technologies and modeling]. Moscow, SCAD SOFT Publ., 2014. 911 p. (In Russian).

6. Perel'muter A. V. On assessment of survivability of load-bearing structures. Metallicheskie konstrukcii. Raboty shkoly professora Streleckogo. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 1995. Pp. 62-68. (In Russian).

7. Vinogradov A. I. Problema optimal'nogo proektirovaniya v stroitel'noj mekhanike [The problem of optimal design in structural mechanics]. Har'kov, Vishcha shkola Publ., 1973. 167 p. (In Russian).

8. Stupishin L. Yu. Variation criterion of critical levels of deformable body internal energy. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 8, pp. 21-23. (In Russian).

9. Perel'muter A. V., Slivker V. I. Raschetnye modeli sooruzhenij i vozmozhnost' ih analiza [Design models of structures and the possibility of their analysis]. Moscow, DMK Press Publ., 2007. 600 p. (In Russian).

10. Bate K., Vilson E. Chislennye metody analiza i metod konechnyh ehlementov [Numerical analysis methods and finite element method]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1982. 448 p. (In Russian).

11. Robinson Dzh., Haggenmajer G. V., Kontini R. Static analysis of structures using force method and displacement as a problem of eigenvalues. Raschet uprugih konstrukcij s ispol'zovaniem EVM [Calculation of elastic structures using computers]. Leningrad, Sudostroenie Publ., 1974. Vol. 2. Pp. 91-102. (In Russian).

12. Darkov A. V., et al. Stroitel'naya mekhanika [Structural mechanics]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1976. 600 p. (In Russian).

13. Stupishin L. Yu. Evaluation of state of load-bearing constructions of buildings and structures. Resource of bearing capacity of structures with defects. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 10, pp. 39-44. (In Russian).

14. Bhatt P. Problems in structural analysis by Matrix Methods. The Construction Press, 1981. 465 p. **For citation**: Stupishin L. U. Limit State of Building Structures and Critical Energy Levels.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 102-106.- ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. TOWN PLANNING
- Some Issues of Functional Reconstruction and Safe Operation of Circus Buildings
- UDC 624.91.024.26.721

**Vitaliy I. KOLCHUNOV**, e-mail: asiorel@mail.ru

Southwest State University, 50 let Oktyabrya, 94, Kursk 305040, Russian Federation

**Elena V. SYSOEVA**, e-mail: sysoevaev@mgsu.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. In a brief historical retrospective the evolution of the origin and formation of Russian circus art objects is considered. It is shown that a network of capital circus buildings formed in large Russian cities in the second half of the twentieth century is one of dominant features of a biosphere-compatible city, developing man. The analysis of historical evolution of functions of such public buildings is given. It is established that most functioning circus buildings in the country are not currently fully meet modern functional requirements and the safety requirements of increased level of responsibility buildings. That is why they need either reconstruction or repair. However, in the context of the current practice of technical and legal regulation of the operation of objects of an increased level of responsibility, there are no mechanisms to ensure timely reconstruction or overhaul aimed at meeting the safety requirements of already operated buildings. The problem becomes more acute not only due to the need to ensure all the dynamically changing requirements of the safety of such unique objects operation with a large number of people visiting them, including children, but also due to the need to preserve the historical buildings of circuses and their landscape and recreational environment.

**Key words**: circus, reconstruction, biosphere compatibility, recreational space, multifunctional complex, urban planning system. - REFERENCES

1. Аdamovich V. V., et al. Аrkhitekturnoe proektirovanie obshhestvennykh zdanij i sooruzhenij [Architectural design of public buildings and facilities]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1984. 543 p. (In Russian).

2. Stepanov V. B. Kraski Kurska. Vospominaniya. Ocherki [The paints of Kursk. Memory lane. Essays]. Kursk, IP Ivanov А. V. Publ., 2013. 242 p. (In Russian).

3. Il'ichev V. А., et al. Algorithm of development of programs of complex safety and survivability of urban areas. Biosfernaya sovmestimost: chelovek, region, tekhnologii, 2013, no. 1, pp. 47-52. (In Russian).

4. Il'ichev V. А., et al. Innovativation practice in the cities and the Doctrine of urban planning. Biosfernaya sovmestimost: chelovek, region, tekhnologii, 2014, no. 3(7), pp. 3-18. (In Russian).

5. Shubenkov M. V., Shubenkova M. Yu. Selected issues of development of the domestic theory of urban planning. Architecture and Modern Information Technologies, 2015, Special, pp. 16-25. (In Russian).

6. Pryadko I. P., Ivanova Z. I. Biosphere and social processes in the aspect of formation of urban environment design. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 10, pp. 12-17. (In Russian).

7. Enin А. E., Grosheva T. I. A systemic approach to the reconstruction of the landscape-recreational spaces. Stroitelstvo i rekonstruktsiya, 2017, no. 4, pp. 101-108. (In Russian).

8. Il'ichev V. А., et al. Printsipy preobrazovaniya goroda v biosferosovmestimyj i razvivayushhij cheloveka [The principles of transformation of the city in biospherically and develops the human].Moscow, АSV Publ., 2015. 184 p. (In Russian).

9. Il'ichev V. А. Biosfernaya sovmestimost': Tekhnologii vnedreniya innovatsij. Goroda, razvivayushhie cheloveka [Biosphere compatibility: innovation technologies. Cities developing people]. Moscow, Knizhnyj dom "LIBROKOM" Publ., 2011. 240 p. (In Russian).

10. Kolchunov V. I., Bruma E. V. By estimates of component "healthcare" at realization of functions of the city for people with limited mobility. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya, 2013, no. 2(46), pp. 94-98. (In Russian).

11. Il'ichev V. А., Kolchunov V. M., Bakaeva N. V. Redevelopment of urban areas on the principles of the symbiosis of urban planning systems and their natural environment. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2018, no. 3, pp. 4-11. (In Russian).

12. Travush V. I., Emel'yanov S. G., Kolchunov V. I. The safety of living environment - meaning and task of building science. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 7, pp. 20-27. **For citation**: Kolchunov V. I., Sysoeva E. V. Some Issues of Functional Reconstruction and Safe Operation of Circus Buildings.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 107-113. (In Russian).- WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE, BUILDING SYSTEMS OF WATER RESOURCES PROTECTION
- Dependence of Air Permeability of Translucent Structures on Temperature Impacts
- UDC 692.82

**Yury S. KUNIN**, e-mail: uskunin@mgsu.ru

**Rafik G. ALEKPEROV**, e-mail: Аlekperovrg@mgsu.ru

**Tatiana V. POTAPOVA**, e-mail: PotapovaTV@mgsu.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Air permeability is one of the most important characteristics affecting the heat balance of premises and energy efficiency of buildings, and ranks first among the reasons for claims to translucent structures. Existing methods for determination of air permeability of window units are based on sequential creation of stationary pressure differences and measurement of mass and volume air flow rates penetrating through the sample, with subsequent calculation of air permeability at positive temperature. Translucent structure is considered as static system, characteristics of which do not change during operation period. The hypothesis of increasing the air permeability of these structures with a decrease in temperature, which was confirmed by laboratory tests, was formulated. This is due, first of all, to the temperature deformations of frames and sashes' profiles and deterioration of elasticity of sealing gaskets. Laboratory tests of a number of samples of window units were conducted and the dependence of the air permeability value on temperature impacts was determined on the basis of the results obtained. It is established that the dependence of air permeability on pressure is non-linear. Introduction of additional requirements and correction coefficients for translucent structures when calculating the infiltration of buildings and structures is proposed. The foundation for further research in the field of the impact of climatic loads on the properties of the material and the deformability of PVC window units is laid.

**Key words**: translucent structures, air permeability, windows, terms and conditions of use, temperature conditions, pressure difference, air tightness, volumetric air flow rate, air infiltration. - REFERENCES

1. Alekperov R. G., Potapova T. V. To the issue of durability of translucent structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 9, pp. 30-34. (In Russian).

2. Stratiy P. V., Stanovov I. A. The influence of the glazing ratio of a faзade on the energy efficiency. Vestnik TOGU, 2017, no. 4(47), pp. 105-114. (In Russian).

3. Skryabin V. I., Starostin E. G. Investigation of air velocity in natural ventilation system of building in winter conditions. Vestnik Severo-Vostochnogo federal'nogo universiteta im. M. K. Ammosova, 2011, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 56-59. (In Russian).

4. Matveeva O. I., Starostin E. G., Stepanov A. V., et al. Heat losses of typical buildings in Yakutsk city. Resursy stroitel'nogo kompleksa Respubliki Sakha (Yakutiya). Sb. nauch. tr., posvyashch. 65-letiyu stroit. kompleksa. Yakutsk, SO RAN Publ., 2001. Pp. 206-209. (In Russian).

5. Sesyunin S. G., Eldashov Yu. A. Application of mathematical model techniques for complex solutions of structural analysis tasks in PVC constructions under operational loads. Svetoprozrachnye konstruktsii, 2006, no. 5, pp. 20-25. (In Russian).

6. Shekhovtsov A. V. Air permeability of an PVC-window when exposed to freezing temperatures. Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 3, pp. 263-269. (In Russian).

7. Vlasenko D. V. Why are windows deformating? Okonnoye proizvodstvo, 2014, no. 39, pp. 42-44. (In Russian).

8. Yanoshi L. Teoriya i praktika obrabotki rezul'tatov izmereniy [Theory and practice of the evaluation of measurements]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1968. 462 p. (In Russian).

9. Stepanov A. V., Timofeev A. M., Starostin E. G., et al. Field research of buildings in Yakutsk city. Sovremennye problemy teplofiziki v usloviyakh Kraynego Severa. Materialy VI nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy pamyati professora, doktora tekhnicheskikh nauk N. S. Ivanova. Yakutsk, YaGU Publ., 2004. Pp. 122-128. (In Russian).

10. Malyshev A. V., Skryabin V. I., Starostin E. G. Microclimate and energy consumption for heating in buildings with a high rate of wear in Neryungri city. Yuzhnaya Yakutiya - novyy etap industrial'nogo razvitiya. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Neryungri, Tekhnicheskiy institut Publ., 2007, vol. 2. Pp. 220-224. (In Russian). **For citation**: Kunin Yu. S., Alekperov R. G., Potapova T. V. Dependence of Air Permeability of Translucent Structures on Temperature Impacts.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 10, pp. 114-120. (In Russian).