2018 |

## ¹ 6 (june) 2018 |

- BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
- Scientific and Technical Support for Design of Buildings and Structures
- UDC 692(083.75)

**Victor V. GRANEV**, e-mail: cniipz@cniipz.ru

Central Scientific Research and Project Experimental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Constructions, Dmitrovskoe shosse, 46, korp. 2, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The sequence of development of normative and technical documents, from conducting research and experimental designing works to the subsequent development of sets of rules, is considered. During 2015-2017 under the leadership of JSC "TSNIIPromzdany" and with the direct participation of the Institute's specialists, new sets of rules were developed, amendments to the sets of rules were adopted and updating of previously approved building norms and rules in the field of designing of residential, public and production buildings and structures was performed. These documents include codes of rules "Football Stadiums. Design Rules", "Buildings and Structures. Operating Rules. Main Provisions", standards of organizations for NOSTROY and NOPRIZ etc. Systematic updating and improvement of regulatory and technical documents creates a solid basis for the design of buildings and structures that meet modern comfort and safety requirements.

**Key words**: scientific and technical support, design of construction objects, codes of rules, standards of organizations, safety of structures. - REFERENCES

1. Granev V. V., Kodysh E. N. Development and updating of normative documents concerning designing and construction of industrial and civil buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 7, pp. 9-12. (In Russian).

2. Glikin S. M. Actualization of building norms and rules. Promyshlennoe i grazdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 2, pp. 12-14. (In Russian).

3. Granev V. V., Lejkina D. K., Motorin V. V. Mnogofunkcional'nye sportivnye kompleksy [Multipurpose sports complex]. Moscow, Avis Original Publ., 2011. 200 p. (In Russian).

4. Eremeev P. G. Sovremennye konstrukcii pokrytij nad tribunami stadionov [Modern constructions of the coverings over the stands of stadiums]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2015. 236 p. (In Russian).

5. Granev V. V. On the issue of sports facilities designing. Promyshlennoe i grazdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 7, pp. 37-39. (In Russian).

6. Granyov V. V., Lejkina D. K., Motorin V. V. Football stadiums for the world Cup 2018: traditions and innovations. Arhitektura. Stroitelstvo. Dizajn, 2011, no. 4, pp. 10-13. (In Russian).

7. Rukovodstvo po ehkspluatacii stroitel'nyh konstrukcij proizvodstvennyh zdanij promyshlennyh predpriyatij [The user manual for building structures of industrial buildings of industrial enter prises]. Moscow, Tsniipromzdaniy Publ., 1981. 90 ð. (In Russian).

8. Rekomendacii po ehkspluatacii zdanij, sooruzhenij i inzhenernyh setej, vozvedennyh na prosadochnyh gruntah [Recommendations for the operation of buildings, structures and engineering networks erected on subsidence soils]. Moscow, Tsniipromzdaniy Publ., 1984. 50 ð. (In Russian). **For citation**: Granev V. V. Scientific and Technical Support for Design of Buildings and Structures.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 4-8. (In Russian).- Architecture of Large-Span Translucent Covering of Football Stadiums
- UDC 725.826:796:69.024

**Diana K. LEYKINA**, e-mail: cniipz@cniipz.ru

**Gennadiy V. OKEANOV**, e-mail: g.okeanov@yandex.ru

Central Scientific Research and Project Experimental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Constructions, Dmitrovskoe shosse, 46, korp. 2, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The influence of functional, constructive and aesthetic factors on the architectural formation of large-span translucent coverings of modern football stadiums is considered; the interdependence of their form, planning and constructive structure is defined. An overview of modern building systems for translucent enclosing structures of large-span roofs of football stadiums is given. Based on the experience of design and construction of objects for the World Cup 2018 in Russia, the advisability of modular roofing architecture is shown, and the tendencies of their development are revealed. Methods for architectural organization of large-span translucent roofs of football stadiums with due regards for the specific climatic conditions in the Russian Federation are proposed. The necessity of harmonization of the external and internal spaces of the stadium through the organization of their visual relationship is substantiated. It is established that the operation of a football stadium in the daily mode requires the expansion of its functional capabilities with the help of mobile and transformable architectural structures of translucent roofing.

**Key words**: large-span translucent covering, football stadium, translucent enclosing structures, planning solution, arena lighting. - REFERENCES

1. Ninhoff H., Sartori A., Svetankov S. Kak postroit' horoshij stadion: rukovodstvo pol'zovatelya [How to build a good stadium: user's guide]. Available at: https://assets.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2014/04/S_TS_Stadiums_4r_new.pdf (accessed 22.04.2018). (In Russian).

2. Eremeev P. G. Sovremennye konstrukcii pokrytij nad tribunami stadionov [Modern constructions of the coverings over the stands of stadiums]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2015. 236 p. (In Russian).

3. Kuznecov S. O. My postroili novyj stadion vnutri istoricheskogo fasada [We built a new stadium inside the historic facade]. Available at: http://welcome2018.com/journal/materials/my-vynuli-vsyu-nachinku-i-postroili-novyy-stadion-vnutri-istoricheskogo-fasada/ (accessed 22.04.2018). (In Russian).

4. Okeanov G. V., Gogolkina O. V. Problems of formation of large-span coatings of modern stadiums and mathematical algorithms in architectural work. Nauka, obrazovanie i ehksperimental'noe proektirovanie [Science, education and experimental design]. Moscow, MArhI Publ., 2018. Vol. 2. 662 p. (In Russian).

5. Schunck E., Oster H. J., Barthel R., Kiessl K. Roof construction manual. Pitched roofs. Basel, Birkhauser, 2003. 448 p.

6. Ermolov V. V., Behrd U. U., Bubner EH., el. at. Pnevmaticheskie stroitel'nye konstrukcii [Pneumatic building structures]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1983. 439 p. (In Russian).

7. Hazanov D. B. Module in architecture. Voprosy teorii arhitekturnoj kompozicii [Questions of the theory of architectural composition]. Vol. 2. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1958, pp. 3-26. (In Russian).

8. Shuazi O. Istoriya arhitektury. Arhitektura Drevnego Rima. Amfiteatry, teatry i cirki Drevnego Rima [History of architecture. The Architecture of Ancient Rome. Amphitheaters, theatres and circuses of Ancient Rome]. Available at: http://totalarch.ru/choisy_history_architecture/roma/11 (accessed 22.04.2018). (In Russian).

9. Vtoroj ocenochnyj doklad Rosgidrometa ob izmeneniyah klimata i ih posledstviyah na territorii rossijskoj federacii. Obshchee rezyume [The second assessment report of Roshydromet on climate change and its consequences on the territory of the Russian Federation. General summary]. Moscow, Rosgidromet Publ., 2014. 60 p. (In Russian).

10. Vimmer M. Prakticheskoe posobie. Proektirovanie stadiono [Practical guide. Design of stadiums]. Berlin, Dom publishers Publ., 2016. 320 p. (In Russian).

11. John G., Sheaard R., Vickery B. Stadia. A design and development guide. Oxford, Elsevier Ltd., 2007. 320 p.

12. Bush D. V. Najti kompromiss. Sportivnye megaproekty. CHM-2018. Katalog proektov [Find a compromise. Sports mega-projects. The 2018 world Cup. Project directory]. Ekaterinburg, Ustoychivoe razvitie Publ., 2015. 96 c. (In Russian).

13. Granev V. V., Lejkina D. K., Motorin V. V. Mnogofunkcional'nye sportivnye kompleksy [Multipurpose sports complex]. Moscow, Avis Original Publ., 2011. 200 p. (In Russian). **For citation**: Leykina D. K., Okeanov G. V. Architecture of Large-Span Translucent Covering of Football Stadiums.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 9-16. (In Russian).- Features of Design and Construction of a Multifunctional Sports Complex - Football Stadium for 45000 Spectators in Rostov-on-Don
- UDC 624.943

**Nikolay G. KELASYEV**, e-mail: kelasyev@mail.ru

Central Scientific Research and Project Experimental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Constructions, Dmitrovskoe shosse, 46, korp. 2, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article presents the materials about the design and construction in Rostov-on-Don of the multifunctional sports complex - the football stadium for plays of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The main provisions adopted when selecting a land plot for construction are highlighted, the location of the object on the selected site is substantiated, the description of solutions, taken to ensure transport service of the stadium, safe access for pedestrians and people with limited mobility and architectural and planning solutions, is presented. The composition of scientific and technical support at all stages of design and construction is given. The basic design solutions of the stadium with due regard for the seismicity of the construction area and increased responsibility of the object, as well as the design features of this facility are described. The article describes the tests of the stadium model in the wind tunnel to determine snow and wind loads, the progress of calculations, including the avalanche (progressive) collapse. The structural solutions of steel roof structures and the nodes resting on reinforced concrete structures and connections with each other are shown.

**Key words**: multifunctional sports complex, football stadium for 45000 spectators, monolithic reinforced concrete structures, structures of overlapping. - REFERENCES

1. Lejkina D. K., Fajzullin I. E., Spektor Yu. I. Football stadium for 45000 spectators in Kazan. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2011, no. 2, pp. 7-11. (In Russian).

2. Tamrazyan A. G. Safety of sports facilities of the olympic games-2014 and prospects of modernization of the Big Sochi. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2011, no. 4, pp. 11-14. (In Russian).

3. Granev V. V., Lejkina D. K., Motorin V. V. Mnogofunkcionalnye sportivnye kompleksy [Multipurpose sports complex]. Moscow, 2011. 200 p. (In Russian).

4. Granev V. V., Lejkina D. K., Motorin V. V. Football stadiums for the world Cup 2018: traditions and innovations. Arhitektura. Stroitelstvo. Dizajn, 2011, no. 4, pp. 10-13. (In Russian).

5. Granev V. V., Lejkina D. K., Motorin V. V. Football stadiums in Russia: creativity and work of domestic designers. SportsFacilities. Sooruzheniya i industriya sporta, 2013, no. 8, pp. 22-31. (In Russian).

6. Granev V. V., Lejkina D. K., Motorin V. V. Football stadium for 45 thousand spectators in Kazan. SportsFacilities. Sooruzheniya i industriya sporta, 2013, no. 8, pp. 32-39. (In Russian).

7. Eremeev P. G. Sovremennye konstrukcii pokrytij nad tribunami stadionov [Modern constructions of the coverings over the stands of stadiums]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2015. 236 p. (In Russian).

8. Kelasyev N. G. Peculiarities of design and construction of the football stadium in Kazan for the 21st World Cup FIFA final tournament. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2013, no. 6, pp. 51-55. (In Russian).

9. Kelasyev N. G., Chernomaz A. P. Optimization of construction solutions when designing a football stadium for 45 000 spectators in Rostov-on-Don. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2014, no. 7, pp. 48-50. (In Russian).

10. Kelasyev N. G., Avdeev K. V. Experimental study of precast structures of stand flooring of the football stadium for 45 000 spectators in Rostov-on-Don. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2016, no. 6, pp. 20-24. (In Russian). **For citation**: Kelasyev N. G. Features of Design and Construction of a Multifunctional Sports Complex - Football Stadium for 45000 Spectators in Rostov-on-Don.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 17-23. (In Russian).- Development of Normative Documentation in the Field of Operation of Buildings and Structures
- UDC 69.05(083.75)

**Aleksandr N. MAMIN**, e-mail: otozs@yandex.ru

**Emil N. KODYSH**, e-mail: otks@yandex.ru

**Vladimir V. BOBROV**, e-mail: otozs@yandex.ru

Central Scientific Research and Project Experimental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Constructions, Dmitrovskoe shosse, 46, korp. 2, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. At present, the issues of operation of building structures, engineering and technical support systems, objects of capital construction of various functional purposes as well objects in seismic dangerous areas are considered in the field of regulation because until recently, the rules of operation did not exist. The relevance of the development of the normative base in the field of operation of capital construction objects is substantiated, the review of works on updating the codes of rules performed by the specialists of JSC "TSNIIPromzdany" in 2015-2017 is presented. In necessary cases, the preparation of codes of practice is preceded by scientific research in order to obtain sufficient theoretical and reliable practical data for their accounting when determining the normalized parameters and clarifying the requirements for the operation of buildings and structures in the preparation of regulatory, instructional, technical and organizational and methodological documents. The application of codes of rules for the operation of buildings (structures) and systems of engineering and technical support will help to reduce operating costs and repair costs while ensuring the required safety of capital construction projects of various functional purposes.

**Key words**: operation of buildings and structures, regulatory documentation, systems of engineering and technical support, capital construction objects, safety, durability, monitoring, repair. - REFERENCES

1. Korol' E. A. Development of the methodology for formation of regulatory framework in the field of operation of buildings and structures and modernization of educational programs. Vestnik MGSU, 2017, vol. 12, iss. 10 (109), pp. 1082-1089. (In Russian).

2. Granev V. V., Kodysh E. N. Development and updating of normative documents concerning designing and construction of industrial and civil buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 7, pp. 9-12. (In Russian).

3. Glikin S. M. Actualization of building norms and rules. Promyshlennoe i grazdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 2, pp. 12-14. (In Russian).

4. Rukovodstvo po ehkspluatacii stroitel'nyh konstrukcij proizvodstvennyh zdanij promyshlennyh predpriyatij [The user manual for building structures of industrial buildings of industrial enter prises]. Moscow, Tsniipromzdaniy Publ., 1981. 90 p. (In Russian)

5. Rekomendacii po ehkspluatacii zdanij, sooruzhenij i inzhenernyh setej, vozvedennyh na prosadochnyh gruntah [Recommendations for the operation of buildings, structures and engineering networks erected on subsidence soils]. Moscow, Tsniipromzdaniy Publ., 1984. 50 p. (In Russian).

6. Rekomendacii po usileniyu i remontu stroitel'nyh konstrukcij inzhenernyh sooruzhenij [Recommendations for strengthening and repair of building structures of engineering structures]. Moscow, Tsniipromzdaniy Publ., 1997. 178 p. (In Russian). **For citation**: Mamin A. N., Kodysh E. N., Bobrov V. V. Development of Normative Documentation in the Field of Operation of Buildings and Structures.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 24-27. (In Russian).- One-Storey Industrial Buildings with Operated Areas in Roof-Truss Space
- UDC 624.07

**Emil N. KODYSH**, e-mail: otks@yandex.ru

**Nikolai N. TREKIN**, e-mail: nik-trekin@yandex.ru

**Ivan A. TEREKHOV**, e-mail: otks@yandex.ru

Central Scientific Research and Project Experimental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Constructions, Dmitrovskoe shosse, 46, korp. 2, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The most common variants of design solutions of industrial buildings, classical one-and two-storey with an increased grid of columns of the upper floor are given. The proposed space-planning and construction solutions of one-storey industrial buildings with usable areas in the roof-truss space are considered. The peculiarity of this design solution is that the often used bearing structures of the roof of a one-storey building, steel trusses with parallel belts or polygonal, make it possible to locate (between the upper and lower belts of trusses) an additional floor. The floor, located within the increased height of the truss, can be used to accommodate auxiliary production, administrative and household premises, engineering systems and communications, and also allows you to abandon the use of mezzanines. The design of a truss with a rare lattice is determined depending on the type of overlap. It is recommended for trusses with an overlap of ribbed slabs to adopt a standard type of double angles, for trusses with a monolithic overlap of multi-hollow plates - belts of wide I-beams and a grid of rectangular roll-welded profiles. For the modular version of the overlap of ribbed plates, the issues of accounting for the compliance of nodal mates, as well as the inclusion of longitudinal and transverse joints in the overlap work are considered.

**Key words**: industrial building, space-planning and constructive solutions, steel trusses, monolithic overlap, precast overlap, ribbed slabs, roof-truss space. - REFERENCES

1. Andreev O. O. Consideration of the compliance of compounds in the finite element method. Chislennye metody i algoritmy. Moscow, CZNIISK Publ., 1975. Iss. 46, pp. 9-12. (In Russian).

2. Kashheev G. V. Volodin N. M. Korovkin B. C. Compliance of joints of precast concrete floors of frame-panel buildings. Issledovanie zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sistem. Moscow, CZNIISK Publ., 1975. Iss. 49, pp. 131-139. (In Russian).

3. Kodysh E. N., Trekin N. N. Plate-rod model of the overlap cell for horizontal loads calculation. Materialy XXX Vserossijskoy nauchno-texnicheskoy konferencii "Aktualnye problemy sovremennogo stroitelstva". Penza, PGASA Publ., 1999, pp. 56-57. (In Russian)

4. Vasilev A. P., Katin N. I., Shitikov B. A. Work of embedded parts under the joint action of shear and normal forces. Promyshlennoe stroitelstvo, 1971, no. 7, pp. 19-22. (In Russian).

5. Rekomendacii po raschetu karkasov mnogoetazhnykh zdaniy s uchetom podatlivosti uzlovykh sopryazhenij sbornykh zhelezobetonnykh konstrukciy [Recommendations for the calculation of multi-storey building frames taking into account the flexibility of the nodal interfaces of precast concrete structures]. Moscow, GUP CzPP Publ., 2002. 81 p. (In Russian).

6. Frolov A. K. Deformability of support sections of longitudinal edges of coating plates under the action of horizontal forces. Beton i zhelezobeton, 1973, no. 12, pp. 21-22. (In Russian).

7. Kodysh E. N., Trekin N. N., Mamin A. N. The resistance of the longitudinal joints between the tiles shearing force. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov "Aktualnye problemy i perspektivy razvitiya zheleznodorozhnogo transporta". Moscow, RGOTUPS Publ., 2000, pp. 90-92. (In Russian).

8. Kodysh E. N., Trekin N. N., Terexov I. A., et al. Improvement of space-planning and design solutions of large-span multi-storey buildings on the example of Parking garages with steel frame. Academia. Arxitektura i stroitelstvo, 2017, no. 3, pp. 103-107. (In Russian). **For citation**: Kodysh E. N., Trekin N. N., Terekhov I. A. One-Storey Industrial Buildings with Operated Areas in Roof-Truss Space.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 28-31. (In Russian).- Hidden Metal Capitals with Horizontal Sheet Reinforcement
- UDC 69.07:691.714

**Nikolay N. TREKIN**, e-mail: otks@narod.ru

Central Scientific Research and Project Experimental Institute of Industrial Buildings and Constructions, Dmitrovskoe shosse, 46, korp. 2, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Dmitrii A. PEKIN**, e-mail: dpekin@mail.ru

INV-STROY, 3-y Pavlovskiy per., 12, Moscow 113093, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The use of traditional reinforced concrete capitals in beamless floors in some cases may contradict the existing space-planning solutions, for example, when reconstructing industrial buildings for shopping center with limitation of the construction heights of the floors or may increase the consumption of material overall due to the total height of the building. Known structural solutions with rigid reinforcement in the support zones in the form of channels or I-beams do not make it possible to increase the flexural rigidity of the cross sections, as well as are not specified by regulations. A hidden metal capital with vertical and horizontal sheet reinforcement is an alternative structural solution. Vertical steel sheets have pre-cut holes for installing the reinforcement that do not require fixing by welding. Vertical steel sheets in the direction of large spans are made with a protrusion relative to the top of the floor to ensure connection with horizontal steel sheets by welding after completion of concrete work. Thus, the geometrical characteristics of the cross sections in the main direction are significantly increased as well as the bearing capacity when bending and punching. The article presents the calculation procedure of support zones of reinforced concrete beamless floors strengthened with hidden metal capitals with horizontal sheet reinforcement. The effectiveness of the use of hidden metal capitals with horizontal sheet reinforcement in monolithic reinforced concrete beamless floors is shown on the example of the warehouse building.

**Key words**: multi-storey building, beamless floor, hidden metal capital, support area, sheet reinforcement. - REFERENCES

1. Trekin N. N., Pekin D. A. The use of hidden metal capitals in beam-free monolithic slabs. Sovremennaja nauka i innovacii, 2016, no. 2, pp. 110-115. (In Russian).

2. Trekin N. N., Pekin D. A. Hidden metal capitals of monolithic beamless slabs. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 7, pp. 17-20. (In Russian).

3. Patent na izobretenie ¹ 2457302. Plitnaja stroitel'naja konstrukcija [Slab construction construction]. Pekin D. A., Priluckij O. G. Zajavka ¹ 2011108708, 2011. (In Russian).

4. Kodysh Je. N., Trekin N. N., Nikitin I. K. Projecting of sections of prefabricated coverings for increased loads. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 2, pp. 24-26. (In Russian).

5. Kodysh Je.N., Nikitin I.K., Trekin N.N. Proektirovanie uchastkov perekrytij pod povyshennye nagruzki pri novom stroitel'stve i rekonstrukcii [Design of floor areas under increased load during new construction and reconstruction]. Moscow, CPP Publ., 2011. 63 p. (In Russian).

6. Granev V. V., Kodysh Je. N., Trekin N. N., Nikitin I. K. The strengthening of a possible punching girderless monolithic slab. Budivel'ni konstrukcii. Naukovo-tehnichni problemi suchasnogo zalizobetonu. Iss. 74. Kiiv, DP NDIBK Publ., 2011. Vol. 2, pp. 10-18. **For citation**: Trekin N. N., Pekin D. A. Hidden Metal Capitals with Horizontal Sheet Reinforcement.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 32-37. (In Russian).- Theory and Practice of Further Development of Wooden Structures.

Part 1: Loads, Design Resistance and Long-Term Strength of Timber - UDC 624.04:624.011.1

**Anatoli Y. NAICHUK**, e-mail: atnya@yandex.ru

Brest State Technical University, ul. Moskovskaya, 267, Brest 224017, Republic of Belarus

**Alexander A. POGORELTSEV**, e-mail: pogara@yandex.ru

JSC Research Center of Construction, Research Institute of Building Constructions (TSNIISK) named after V. A. Koucherenko, 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Yevgeny N. SEROV**

Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2-ya Krasnoarmejskaya ul., 4, 190005 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The analysis of experimental-theoretical investigations in the field of design and assessment of the technical state of operating wooden structures is presented. The article consists of the several parts. In them the main problems are formulated and the way of their decisions which are related to the clarification: the classification and combination of loads and actions; the design resistance of the timber and materials on the basis of it; the models of the long-term strength and durability of the timber; the assessment methods of the design resistance values of the wooden structures elements joints; the criteria of the timber long-term strength for the case of the combined stress and criteria of failure under the conditions of combined non-uniform stress; models of the joints compliance; the methods for determination of the strength and elastic characteristics of the timber and materials based on it for operating structures; the assessment methods of the residual life of operating structures are presented. This article formulates the problems and ways of their solution concerning the classification of loads, determination of design values of resistances and long-term strength of wood used when designing structures.

**Key words**: timber structures, long-term strength, design resistance, load, reliability. - REFERENCES

1. Turkovskiy S. B., Pogoreltsev A. A., Preobrazhenskaya I. P. Kleyenyye derevyannyye konstruktsii s uzlami na vkleyennykh sterzhnyakh v sovremennom stroitelstve [Glued wooden structures with nodes on glued rods in modern construction]. Moscow, RIF "Stroymaterialy" Publ., 2013. 300 p. (In Russian).

2. Blaß, Hans Joachim; Sandhaas, Carmen. Timber engineering - principles for design. KIT Publ., 2017. 658 p.

3. Krause M., Kurz J., Lanata F., Krstevska L., Cavalli A. Needs for further developing monitoring and NDT-methods fir timber structures. Proc. of the International conference on structural health assessment of timber structures, Wroclaw, Poland, 2015, pp. 89-99.

4. Knut Einar Larsen, Nils Marstein. Cjnservation of historic timber structures. Oslo, 2016. 117 p.

5. Fedosenko I. G. Ways of preservation of historical wood and its durability. Nauka I tekhnologiya stroitelnyh materialov: sostoyanie i perspektivy ih razvitiya: materialy mezhdunar. nauch.-tehn. konf. [Science and technology of building materials: the state and prospects of development: materials of Intern. scientific.- tech. conf.]. Minsk. Nov. 27-29 2013. Minsk, BGTU Publ., 2013, pp. 179-182. (In Russian).

6. Zhurkov S. N. The problem of strength of solids. Vestnik AN SSSR, 1957, vol. 11, pp. 78-82. (In Russian).

7. Loebjinski W., Rug and H. Pasternak. Approaches for an optimisation of partial safety factors for historic timber structures. Safety, reliability, risk, resilience and sustainability of structures and infrastructure, 12th International conference on structural safety & reliability. Vienna, Austria, Aug. 6-10, 2017, pp. 683-692.

8. Ivanov Yu. M. Long-term strength of wood. Lesnoy zhurnal, 1972, no. 4, pp. 76-82. (In Russian).

9. Ivanov Yu. M., Slavik Yu. Yu. Long-term strength of wood under tension across the fibers. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitelstvo i arkhitektura, 1986, no. 10, pp. 22-26. (In Russian).

10. Orlovich R. B., Naychuk A. Ya. On the application of long-term strength criteria in the calculations of wooden structures. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitelstvo i arkhitektura, 1986, no. 5, pp. 15-19. (In Russian).

11. Ivanov Yu. M., Melchikov A. V., Slavik Yu. Yu. Reliability of wooden structures and the rate of accumulation of damage in the material. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitelstvo, 1992, no. 3, pp. 16-20. (In Russian).

12. Belyankin F. P., Yatsenko V. F. Deformativnost i soprotivlyayemost drevesiny [Deformability and resistance of wood]. Kiev, AN USSR Publ., 1957. 86 p. (In Russian).

13. Leontyev N. L. Dlitelnoye soprotivleniye drevesiny. Moscow, Leningrad, Goslesbumizdat Publ., 1957. 132 p. (In Russian).

14. Gerhards C. C. Time-related effects on wood strength: a linear cumulative damage theory. Wood Sci, 1979, no. 11(3), pp. 139-144.

15. Barrett J. D., Foschi R. O. Duration of load and probability of failure of wood. Part 1. Modelling creep rupture. Can. J. of Civil Engineering, 1978, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 505-514.

16. Foschi R. O., Folz B. R., Yao F. Z. Reliability-based design of wood structures. Structural research series. Rep. no. 34/ Dep. of Civil Eng., Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 1989.

17. Ashkenazi Ye. K., Ganov E. V. Anizotropiya konstruktsionnykh materialov [Anisotropy of structural materials]. Leningrad, Mashinostroyeniye Publ., 1980. 247 p. (In Russian).

18. Geniyev G. A. On the criteria of strength of wood under a plane stress state. Stroitelnaya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 1981, no. 3, pp. 15-20. (In Russian). **For citation**: Naichuk A. Y., Pogoreltsev A. A., Serov Y. N. Theory and Practice of Further Development of Wooden Structures. Part 1: Loads, Design Resistance and Long-Term Strength of Timber.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 38-44. (In Russian).- To the Calculation of Anchorages Installed in the Finished Base
- UDC: 624.016:624.078.74

**Sergey I. IVANOV**, e-mail: 5378018@mail.ru

**Dmitry V. KUZEVANOV**, å-mail: sdn-2@mail.ru

**Andrey N. BOLGOV**, e-mail: 200651@mail.ru

JSC Research Center of Construction, NIIZHB named after A. A. Gvozdev, 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, korp. 5, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The analysis of methods for calculation of anchorages with the use of mechanical and chemical anchors according to domestic and European technical documents is presented. The possibility to use the methodology for calculating anchors of inserts pre-installed in concrete by domestic regulations is considered. The results of calculation according to domestic regulations are compared with the results of calculations of anchors post-installed in the concrete base by the European normative document. The accuracy of the above calculation methods is compared with the experimental data obtained by the authors. The analysis of the reliability of available formulas of domestic and foreign regulatory documents is conducted by methods of statistical experiment. The conclusion about the difference in the accuracy of the compared methods is made and new dependences for the calculation of anchors according to domestic norms are proposed. The need for adjusting the national requirements for the assessment of the bearing capacity of anchorages is shown.

**Key words**: anchorage, mechanical and glue bonded anchors, accuracy factor of calculation technique, bearing capacity, constructive reliability. - REFERENCES

1. Bolgov A. N., Ivanov S. I., Kuzevanov D. V. Development of the regulatory framework in the field of anchorages in Russia. Aspects of import substitution. Stroitel'naya orbita, 2016, no. 4, pp. 44-45. (In Russian).

2. STO 36554501-023-2010. Ustrojstvo armaturnyh vypuskov, ustanovlennyh v beton po tekhnologii "Hilti Rebar". Raschet, proektirovanie, montazh [The device of the reinforcing releases installed in concrete on the Hilti Rebar technology. Calculation, design, installation]. Moscow, NIC Stroitel'stvo Publ., 2010. 39 p. (In Russian).

3. STO 36554501-048-2016*. Ankernye krepleniya k betonu. Pravila proektirovaniya [Anchorages to concrete. Design rules]. Moscow, NIC Stroitel'stvo, 2017. 37 p. (In Russian).

4. STO 36554501-052-2016. Ankernye krepleniya k betonu. Pravila ustanovleniya normiruemyh parametrov [Anchorages to concrete. Rules for establishing normalized parameters]. Moscow, NIC Stroitel'stvo Publ., 2017. 43 p. (In Russian).

5. ETAG 001. Metal anchors for use in concrete. Brussels, EOTA, 2013. 52 p.

6. Eligehausen R., Mallee R., Silva J. F. Anchorage in concrete construction. Ernst & Sohn GmbH & Co, 2006. DOI: 10.1002/9783433601358.

7. Rekomendacii po proektirovaniyu stal'nyh zakladnyh detalej dlya zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij [Recommendations for the design of steel embedded parts for reinforced concrete structures]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1984. 87 p. (In Russian).

8. Ivanov S. I. Laboratory tests of anchoring in concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 1, pp. 29-34. (In Russian).

9. Ivanov S. I., Smotrov V. A. Experience in laboratory testing of anchorage in concrete. Tekhnologii betonov, 2016, no. 5-6, pp. 27-29. (In Russian). **For citation**: Ivanov S. I., Kuzevanov D. V., Bolgov A. N. To the Calculation of Anchorages Installed in the Finished Base.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 45-49.- Accounting for Joint Work of Brick Masonry of the Facing Layer of External Walls and Floor Slabs
- UDC 624.04:624.073.7:624.012.2

**Mikhail K. ISHCHUK**, e-mail: kamkon@ya.ru

JSC Research Center of Construction, Research Institute of Building Constructions (TSNIISK) named after V. A. Koucherenko, 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The stress-strain state (SSS) of a facing layer of three-layer walls with flexible ties was investigated. When developing computational models of FEM, designation of strength and deformation characteristics of materials, the results of experimental studies of a large-scale model of a building fragment with three-layer walls and field observations were used. The determining influence of floor slabs and temperature-humidity effects on the SSS of the masonry of the facing layer of non-bearing walls and the appearance of cracks in it is shown. The need to take into account, when calculating three-layer walls, not only the difference of closure temperatures and the temperature the masonry of the face layer, but and of the floor slab end opened from the street side and also of a part of the slab located inside the room with due regard for the internal temperature of the room was revealed. The methods for determining the SSS of the facing layer masonry under temperature-humidity influences have been developed.

**Key words**: three-layer walls with flexible ties, stress-strain state of facing layer masonry, temperature and humidity deformations, closure temperature, crack opening width, methods of multi-layer walls calculation. - REFERENCES

1. Ishchuk M. K. The defects of exterior walls of multi-layer masonry. Integral, 2001, no. 1, pp. 20-22. (In Russian).

2. Ishchuk M. K. Otechestvennyy opyt vozvedeniya zdaniy s naruzhnymi stenami iz oblegchennoy kladki [Domestic experience in the construction of buildings with exterior walls of lightweight masonry]. Moscow, Stroymaterialy Publ., 2009. 369 p. (In Russian).

3. Ishchuk M. K., Zuyeva A. V. The purpose of the calculated temperature of the outer walls with a front layer of masonry. Stroitelnaya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2006, no. 4, pp. 71-73. (In Russian).

4. Ishchuk M. K., Zuyeva A. V. Investigation of the stress and strain state of the facing layer of brickwork subjected to temperature and humidity effect. Promyshlennoye i grazhdanskoye stroitelstvo, 2007, no. 3, pp. 40-43. (In Russian).

5. Ishchuk M. K. Analysis of the stress-strain state of the masonry of the front layer of the outer walls. Zhilishchnoye stroitelstvo, 2008, no. 4, pp. 23-28. (In Russian).

6. STO 36554501-013-2008. Metody rascheta litsevogo sloya iz kirpichnoy kladki naruzhnykh sten s uchetom temperaturno-vlazhnostnykh vozdeystviy [Methods of calculation of a face layer from a brickwork of external walls taking into account temperature and humidity influences]. TSNIISK im. V. A. Kucherenko. Moscow, TSPP Publ., 2008. 19 p. (In Russian).

7. Ishchuk M. K. Study of the stress-strain state of the masonry of the front layer of the outer walls with flexible connections under temperature and humidity effects. Stroitelnaya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2018, no. 1, pp. 72-76. (In Russian).

8. Bedov A. I., Balakshin A. S., Voronov A. A. Causes of emergency situations in enclosing structures of masonry multilayer systems in multi-storey residential buildings. Stroitelstvo i rekonstruktsiya, 2014, no. 6, pp. 11-17. (In Russian).

9. Bondarenko I. N., Malashkin Yu. N., Kachkov N. A., Bondarenko V. I. On the work of brick cladding of modern high-rise buildings. Vestnik MGSU, 2010, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 43-48. (In Russian).

10. Davidyuk A. A. Analysis of the results of the survey of multi-layer exterior walls of multi-storey frame buildings. Zhilishchnoye stroitelstvo, 2010, no. 6, pp. 21-26. (In Russian).

11. Derkach V. N., Orlovich R. B. The quality and longevity of facing of laminose stone walls. Inzhenerno-stroitelnyy zhurnal, 2011, no. 2(20), pp. 42-47. (In Russian).

12. Obozov V. I., Davidyuk A. A. Analysis of damage of brick cladding of facades of multi-storey frame buildings. Seysmostoykoye stroitelstvo. Bezopasnost sooruzheniy, 2010, no. 3, pp. 51-56. (In Russian).

13. Obozov V. I., Davidyuk A. A. The stress-strain state of the brick facade of the building. Seysmostoykoye stroitelstvo. Bezopasnost sooruzheniy, 2010, no. 2, pp. 34-37. (In Russian).

14. Orlovich R. B., Derkach V. N., Zimin S. S. Damage of the stone front layer in the area of interface with reinforced concrete floors. Inzhenerno-stroitelnyy zhurnal, 2015, no. 8(60), pp. 30-37. (In Russian).

15. Orlovich R. B., Derkach V. N. Conjunction of a face layer of laminated stone walls with floor slabs. Promyshlennoye i grazhdanskoye stroitelstvo, 2011, no. 11, pp. 60-63. (In Russian).

16. Beasley K. J. Masonry facade stress failures. The construction specifier, 1998, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 25-28.

17. Grimm C. T. Masonry cracks. Masonry: materials. design, construction and maintenance. Philadelphia, ASTM, 1988. Pp. 257-280.

18. Plewes W. G. Failure of brick facing on high rise buildings. Canadian Building Digests. URL: http://nparc.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/view/accepted/?id=946d9b81-a44a-4df8-99f7-aed5fde47d5f (accessed 7.05.2018).

19. Altaha N. Zweischaliges Ziegelverblendmauerwerk. Stand der Technik. Mauerwerk, 2011, no. 15, SS. 214-219.

20. Brameshuber W., Schubert P., Schmidt U., Hannawald J. Rißfreie Wandlänge von Porenbeton-Mauerwerk. Mauerwerk, 2006, vol. 10, no. 4, SS. 132-139.

21. Martens D. R. W. New approach for spacing of movement joints in reinforced and unreinforced masonry veneer walls. Part 1. Unreinforced masonry. Mauerwerk, 2016, vol. 20, no. 4, SS. 284-294.

22. Schubert P. Vermeiden von Schädlichen Rissen in Mauerwerkbauteilen. Mauerwerk-Kalender. Berlin, 1996. SS. 621-651. **For citation**: Ishchuk M. K. Investigation of the Stress-Strain State of Brick Veneer of the Exterior Walls with Flexible Ties Under Temperature-Humidity Influences.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 50-56. (In Russian).- Strengthening of Roof Girders and Floor Girders with the Use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic
- UDC 624.078.415

**Alexander A. PYATNITSKY**, e-mail: pik-mgsu@mail.ru

**Sergey A. KRUTIK**, e-mail: pik-mgsu@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. When inspecting structures, it is often fixed the absence or poor-quality attachment of decks to beams or roof girders, which can lead to a loss of general stability of the bending elements. Main disadvantages of most of the known methods of strengthening (an additional system of links between the beams, fixing the beams with the help of special elements, anchors for example, etc.) are considerable cost and laboriousness, as well as possible limitations on conducting welding works. The article describes a new design solution for fastening the flooring to steel beams, in which the connecting elements are made of composite material in the form of strips on the basis of carbon tapes attached to the beam and flooring with glue. Practical cases of the use of these technical solutions are described. Recommendations on the preparation of structure surfaces and selection of strengthening materials are made. The presented solutions can be used when reconstructing facilities for strengthening bending elements of structures, fixing of which to the flooring is absent or destructed.

**Key words**: carbon plastic, composite materials, strengthening of roof and floor beams, metallic structures, reconstruction, bending elements. - REFERENCES

1. Tusnin A. R., Shchurov E. O. Experimental studies of steel elements strengthened by carbon fiber composite materials. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 9, pp. 25-29. (In Russian).

2. Tusnin A. R., Shchurov E. O. Experimental Investigation of a Glue Compound of Elements from Steel and Carbon Composite Material. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 7, pp. 69-73. (In Russian).

3. Yu T., Fernando D., Teng J. G., Zhao X. L. Experimental study on CFRP-to-steel bonded interfaces. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2012, no. 43(5), pp. 2279-2289.

4. Xia S. H., Teng J. G. Behavior of FRP-to-steel bond joints. Proc. of International symposium on bond behaviour of FRP in structures (BBFS 2005). 2005. Hong Kong, December, 2005, pp. 419-426.

5. STO 38276489.003-2017. Usilenie stal'nykh konstruktsiy kompozitnymi materialami. Proektirovanie i tekhnologiya proizvodstva rabot [The standard of the organization. Strengthening of steel structures with composite materials. Design and production technology]. Moscow, NtsK Publ., 2017. 62 p. (In Russian).

6. Fam A., Witt S., Rizkalla S. Repair of damaged aluminum truss joints of highway overhead sign structures using FRP. Construction and Building Materials, 2006, no. 20(10), pp. 948-956.

7. Shilin A. A., Pshenichnyy V. A., Kartuzov D.V. Usilenie zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy kompozitsionnymi materialami [Strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with composite materials]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2004. 144 p. (In Russian).

8. Pyatnitskiy A. A., Krutik S. A., Makhov I. O. A new method for strengthening metal structures of architectural monuments. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 3, pp. 73-76. (In Russian).

9. Patent na izobretenie RF 2476651. Ustroystvo dlya krepleniya profilirovannogo nastila k balke [Device for fixing profiled flooring to the beam]. Pyatnitskiy A. A., Rubtsov O. I. 2011. (In Russian).

10. Patent na poleznuyu model' RF 113764. Ustroystvo dlya krepleniya profilirovannogo nastila k balke [Device for fixing profiled flooring to the beam]. Pyatnitskiy A. A. 2011. (In Russian).

11. Patent na poleznuyu model' RF 116541. Ustroystvo dlya usileniya balki [Device for beam strengthening]. Pyatnitskiy A. A. 2011. **For citation**: Pyatnitsky A. A., Krutik S. A. Strengthening of Roof Girders and Floor Girders with the Use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 57-60.- About Possibility of Application of a Structure of the Bearing Floor in Low-Rise Buildings
- UDC 624.078.412: 624.078.74: 624.072.31

**Andrey S. NAZARENKO**, e-mail: andy.nazarenko@yandex.ru

**Arkady V. ZAKHAROV**, e-mail: zakharov.arkady@yandex.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The bearing floor is a box structure that combines the upper and lower floor slabs with all walls and partitions of the floor. Supports of the bearing floor are located along its perimeter, sometimes the supports can be exterior walls. The material of the bearing floor is most often monolithic reinforced concrete. The scope of the use of this design is the buildings, in which according to the functional requirements it is necessary to alternate floors with small rooms and floors with a large space without internal supports. Low residential and multi-storied wide-span buildings with sports, trade and auditoriums as well some production buildings both can be such objects. The structure of the bearing floor is considered on the example of a two-storey cottage in which on the first floor - big rooms general for family (drawing rooms, dining rooms, etc.), on the second bearing floor - small rooms, such as bedrooms, bathing, wardrobe, etc. are located. Under the bearing floor, the entire space is free from supports and suitable for the arrangement of any layout, including, "free" planning, which can be changed many times if necessary. The relation of construction height to flight at the bearing floor of a cottage usually makes not less than 1/4. Such ratio of the specified parameters can provide essential economy of constructional materials when constructing the frame of the house due to considerable reduction in thickness of the overlappings having small flights between walls of rooms of the bearing floor. Results of the theoretical computational study of the stress state of elements of the bearing floor with due regard for the features of the method of its construction are presented in the article.

**Key words**: low-rise buildings, bearing floor, unity of flat monolithic plates, box-shaped section, anchor core, stability of walls, steel-reinforced concrete over-lappings. - REFERENCES

1. Patent 2536594 RF, MPK E04V1/00. Zdanie s bol'sheproletnym pomeshcheniem [The building with the wide-span room]. Zayavitel' i patentoobladatel' Zabalueva T. R., Zakharov A. V., Ishkov A. D. Data registratsii 29.08.2013. (In Russian).

2. Zabalueva T. R., Zakharov A. V. About some innovative processes in modern cottage construction. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 12, pp. 20-22. (In Russian).

3. Zabalueva T. R., Zakharov A. V., Stepenkova E. A. Designs and materials in modern low construction of Russia. Stroitel'ne materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka, 2012, no. 5, pp. 18-19. (In Russian).

4. Zakharov A. V., Zabalueva T. R. "The bearing floor" is new freedom. Novyy dom, 2002, no. 4, pp. 44-47. (In Russian).

5. Nazarenko A. S. Application of various types of overlappings in low buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2016, no. 3, pp. 43-47. (In Russian).

6. Program complex for calculation of building constructions on durability stability and fluctuations of STARK ES. Ver. 4.2 (2006). Moscow, EVROSOFT Publ., 2006. 383 p. (In Russian).

7. Perel'muter A. V., Slivker V. I. Raschetnye modeli sooruzhenij i vozmozhnost' ih analiza [Settlement models of constructions and possibility of their analysis]. Kiev, Stal Publ., 2002. 600 p. (In Russian).

8. Gorodetskiy A. S., Evzerov I. D. Kompyuternye modeli konstrukcij [Computer models of designs]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009. 360 p.

9. Nazarov Yu. P., Zhuk Yu. N., Simbirkin V. N. The automated calculation of the bearing structures of buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2006, no. 8, pp. 42-44. (In Russian).

10. Gorodetskiy A. S., Nazarov Yu. P., Zhuk Yu. N., Simbirkin V. N. Improvement of quality of calculations of building constructions on the basis of sharing of the program STARK ES complexes and LIRA. Informatsionnyy vestnik Mosoblgosekspertizy, 2005, no. 1(8), pp. 42-49. (In Russian).

11. Simbirkin V. N. Design of reinforced concrete frameworks of multystoried buildings by means of the STARK ES personal compute. Informatsionnyy vestnik Mosoblgosekspertizy, 2005, no. 3(10), pp. 42-48. (In Russian).

12. A grant on design of concrete and reinforced concrete designs from heavy concrete without the preliminary tension of fittings (SP 52-101-2003). Moscow, TsNIIPromzdaniy Publ., 2005. 214 p. (In Russian).

13. Bate K. V., Vil'son E. N. Chislennye metody analiza i metod konechnyh elementov [Numerical methods of the analysis and finite element method]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1982. 448 p. (In Russian). **For citation**: Nazarenko A. S., Zakharov A. V. About Possibility of Application of a Structure of the Bearing Floor in Low-Rise Buildings.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 61-66. (In Russian).- STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
- Experimental-Theoretical Studies of Static-Dynamic Deformation of a Spatial Reinforced Concrete Frame with Complex-Stressed Beams of Solid and Composite Cross-Sections
- UDC 624.012.45

**Alexey I. DEM'YANOV**, e-mail: speccompany@gmail.com

**Svetlana A. ALKADI**, e-mail: fortina2008@mail.ru

Southwest State University, ul. 50 let Oktyabrya, 94, Kursk 305040, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The results of the study of static-dynamic deformation of a fragment of a spatial reinforced concrete frame with constructions of solid and composite beams are given. The proposed analytical model for the evaluation of the strength of such reinforced concrete structures in bending with torsion is substantiated. Tests of the reinforced concrete frame with beams working on bending with torsion confirmed the working assumptions formulated with reference to the development of the calculation model. The proposed design scheme is constructed according to the block principle with the use of the model of the stress-strain state of the normal section passing through the end of the spatial crack and the model of the stress-strain state of the spatial section formed by a spiral-shaped crack. On this basis, solving equations have been obtained, which make it possible to find all the important parameters in a complex stress-reinforced concrete element when bending with torsion. In this case, the equations of equilibrium and deformation for the problem under consideration are recorded with respect to the transverse and longitudinal vertical planes. This greatly simplifies the calculation formulas and makes it possible to take into account the axial forces in the transverse reinforcement located at the side faces of the element in relation to the normal and spatial cross-section. The experimental confirmation of the proposed in the calculation model of the correction of longitudinal stresses with the help of coefficients is obtained. This makes it possible to significantly clarify the stress-strain state of the compressed zone over a dangerous spatial crack.

**Key words**: static-dynamic deformation, experimental research, reinforced concrete component, bending with torsion, calculation models, beyond design impacts. - REFERENCES

1. Travush V. I., Fedorova N. V. Survivability parameter calculation for framed structural systems. Nauchnyj zhurnal stroitel'stva i arhitektury, 2017, no. 1(45), pp. 21-28. (In Russian).

2. Geniev G. A., Klyueva N. V. Experimental and theoretical studies of continuous beams in emergency shutdown of individual elements. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo, 2000, no. 10, pp. 24-26. (In Russian).

3. Kolchin Ya. E., Stadol'skij M. I., Kolchunov V. I. Experimental studies to determine the reduced shear stiffness in reinforced concrete elements of the composite section. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenij, 2009, no. 2(223), pp. 62-67. (In Russian).

4. Klyuyeva N. V., Korenkov P. A. Method of experimental determination of survivability parameters of reinforced concrete frame-core structural systems. Promyshlennoye i grazhdanskoye stroitelstvo, 2016, no. 2, pp. 44-48. (In Russian).

5. Kolchunov V. I., Kudrina D. V. Experimental and theoretical studies of prestressed concrete elements of frames in exorbitant conditions. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenij, 2010, no. 3, pp. 14-17. (In Russian).

6. Buhtiyarova A. S. Some results of studies of the survivability of spatial reinforced concrete frame-rod systems. Izvestiya Yugo-Zapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2011, no. 5-2(38), pp. 243-246. (In Russian).

7. Androsova N. B., Buhtiyarova A. S., Klyueva N. V. To definition of criteria of survivability of a fragment of the spatial frame-core system. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstrukciya, 2010, no. 6, pp. 3-7. (In Russian).

8. Kolchunov Vl. I., Klyueva N. V., Buhtiyarova A. S. Resistance of spatial units of the junction of reinforced concrete frames of multi-storey buildings under beyond-design influences. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstrukciya, 2011, no. 5, pp. 21-32. (In Russian).

9. Patent RF 2622496, G01N3/20 (2006/1). Sposob eksperimentalnogo opredeleniya dinamicheskih dogruzheniy v ramno-sterzhnevyih konstruktivnyih sistemah i ustroystvo, realizuyuschee ego [The method for the experimental determination of dynamic preloads in frame-rod structural systems and the device that implements it ]. Kolchunov V. I., Osovskih E. V., Filatova S. A. Zayavitel i patentoobladatel Yugo-Zapadnyiy gosudarstvennyiy universitet (YuZGU). Zayavl. 15.07.2016. Opubl. 15.06.2017. Byul. ¹ 17. (In Russian).

10. Kolchunov V. I., Osovskih E. V., Al'kadi S. A. Experimental studies of a fragment of the frame of a multi-storey building with reinforced concrete elements of the composite section. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstrukciya, 2016, no. 6(68), pp. 13-21. (In Russian).

11. Al'kadi S. A., Dem'yanov A. I., Osovskih E. V. Experimental studies of the survivability of a fragment of a building frame with reinforced concrete components working on a bend with torsion. Stroitel'naya mekhanika inzhenernyh konstrukcij i sooruzhenij, 2017, no. 5, pp. 72-80. (In Russian).

12. Kolchunov Vl. I., Safonov A. G. Complex resistance of the compressed zone of concrete of reinforced concrete structures at torsion with bend. Izvestiya Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2009, no. 1/21, pp. 38-42. (In Russian).

13. Kolchunov V. I., Safonov A. G. Construction of reinforced concrete constructions in torsion with bending. Izvestiya Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2008, no. 4, pp. 7-13. (In Russian).

14. Kolchunov V. I., Safonov A. G., Kolchunov Vl. I. Practical given the concentration of angular deformation in a zone of interface edges with shelf strapping reinforced concrete beams in torsion with bending. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenij, 2009, no. 2, pp. 6-10. (In Russian).

15. Kolchunov V. I., Zazdravnyh Eh. I. The estimated model of the "pin effect" in a reinforced concrete element. Izvestiya vuzov. Ser. Stroitel'stvo, 1996, no. 10, pp. 25-29. (In Russian).

16. Zalesov A. S., Ogandzhanyan G. S. Strength of reinforced concrete elements on the impact of torques and transverse forces. Novye ehksperimental'nye issledovaniya i metody rascheta zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij: sbornik nauchn. trudov [New experimental studies and methods of calculation of reinforced concrete structures]. Moscow, 1989, pp. 4-15. (In Russian).

17. Zalesov A. S., Hozyainov B. P. The strength of the elements under torsion and bending with alternating diagrams of bending moments. Beton i zhelezobeton, 1989, no. 4, pp. 43-45. (In Russian).

18. Zalesov A. S. Calculation of the strength of reinforced concrete elements under the action of transverse forces and torsion. Beton i zhelezobeton, 1976, no. 6, pp. 22-24. (In Russian).

19. Arzamascev S. A., Kudryavcev Yu. A. Study of reinforced concrete elements working on bending with torsion under static and short-term dynamic action. Perspektivy razvitiya fundamental'nyh nauk [Prospects for the development of fundamental sciences], sb. nauch. trudov XV mezhd. konf. studentov i molodyh uchenyh]. Tomsk, Nacional'nyj issledovatel'skij Tomskij politekhnicheskij universitet Publ., 2014, pp. 711-713. (In Russian).

20. Morozov V. I., Bagotsky I. V. To the calculation of fiber-concrete structures exposed to the joint effect of torsion with bending. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2013, no. 5, pp. 109-112. (In Russian).

21. Mostofinejad D., Talaeitaba S. B. Nonlinear modeling of RC beams subjected to torsion using the smeared crack model. Procedia Engineering, 2011, vol. 14, pp. 1447-1454. **For citation**: Dem'yanov A. I., Alkadi S. A. Experimental-Theoretical Studies of Static-Dynamic Deformation of a Spatial Reinforced Concrete Frame with Complex-Stressed Beams of Solid and Composite Cross-Sections.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 68-75. (In Russian).- Calculation of Rational Gradation of Sections for Statistically Determinable Bending Systems as a Non-Linear Programming Problem
- UDC 624.014.046

**Nikolai N. DEMIDOV**, å-mail: melirina08@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article is devoted to the actual issue of steel economy, by searching for optimal places for the stepwise change of moments of inertia of the I-beams. The step change in the cross-section of beams has proved itself in practice and is widely used in construction. This is one of the most frequently used methods of reducing the steel consumption without reducing the reliability of bearing structures. It is shown that such a problem can be considered as an optimization problem. On a number of concrete examples it is shown that, with the appropriate formulation, the optimization problem reduces to the problem of non-linear programming. The chosen formulation of the objective function is not the only possible one, for example, thus it is possible to solve the maximization problem, but a slightly different objective function. Stepwise reduction of moments of inertia when decreasing the steel consumption leads to decrease in the rigidity of the structure. When solving the optimization problem, a beam with several large deflections is obtained, so the second limiting state must be taken into account in the actual design. All the problems posed in this paper are of practical interest. The formulas obtained can be used in design practice.

**Key words**: objective function, non-linear problem, constraints, inequalities, partial derivatives, Hesse matrix, Sylvester criterion, moment of inertia, moment diagram, step change of cross sections, minimum steel consumption, statically defined systems, deflections. - REFERENCES

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- Settlement is a Multifactor Engineering-Geological Process
**Sergey N. CHERNYSHEV**, e-mail: 9581148@list.ru

**Alexey M. MARTYNOV**, e-mail: martynov30am@gmail.com

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Settlement of bases is the most common engineering-geological process. The construction of high-rise buildings with high loads on the ground, as well as an increased requirement for minimization of the relative settlement to eliminate the tilts of the structure, requires the development of this topic, creation of methods for determining deformation properties of a rock mass with regard for its high non-homogeneity due to cavernous porosity and fracturing. The article considers the factors that influence the course and the result of the settlement of buildings and structures but are not taking into account when calculation forecasting of the process performed in accordance with SP 22.13330.2016. The survey errors that affect the accuracy of the calculations of the settlement are named. The hidden defect of the named normative document regulating the calculation of settlement, which reduces the reliability of the calculation of the bases according to the second limit state, is shown. Examples of the realization of the settlement process for bases composed both of dispersed and rocky soils are given. Conclusions about the ways to improve the forecasting effectiveness of settlement in the course of research and design, as well as the control over settlement during the construction and operation of buildings and structures are made.

**Key words**: settlement of buildings and structures, disperse soils, rocky soils, settlement forecast, engineering-geological process, settling joint.- REFERENCES

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12. Chernyshev S. N., Dearmann W. R. Rock fractures. London, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, 1991. 272 p. **For citation**: Chernyshev S. N., Martynov A. M. Settlement is a Multifactor Engineering-Geological Process.*Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo*[Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2018, no. 6, pp. 81-86.