Published since 1923
DOI: 10.33622/0869-7019
Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) на платформе Web of Science

  • Designing Structures For Exterior Walls Of Buildings At Adverse Environmental Effects
  • UDC 692.23:699.8 DOI: 10.33622/0869-7019.2020.08.04-15
    Vladimir T. EROFEEV1, e-mail:
    Tatiana F. ELCHISHCHEVA2, e-mail:
    Nikolay I. VATIN3, e-mail:
    Elena A. MITINA1, e-mail:
    Aleksandr I. RODIN1, e-mail:
    Irina V. EROFEEVA1, e-mail:
    1 National Research Ogarev Mordovia State University, ul. Bolshevistskaya, 68, Saransk 430005, Russian Federation
    2 Tambov State Technical University, ul. Sovetskaya, 106, Tambov 392000, Russian Federation
    3 Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, ul. Polytechnicheskaya, 29, Hydrobuilding-1, St. Petersburg 195251, Russian Federation
    Abstract. The enclosing structures of buildings and facilities made of stone materials often contain inorganic hygroscopic salts and their mixtures in solid and liquid phases. Salts enter the walls from raw materials for the manufacture of building materials; from technological additives to concrete and mortars, which improve the properties of the mixture; from the soil in the absence or violation of horizontal waterproofing; from surrounding natural or industrial air. Salts increase the sorption moisture content of building materials due to their hygroscopicity and accumulate in the porous space in the form of solutions and crystals. The presence of salts in the porous space causes a change in the physic-chemical properties of building materials, reduces their strength (due to destructive changes in the material) and aesthetic qualities (due to the formation of salt crystals on the surface of building materials). High humidity contributes to the development of bio-pollution and the occurrence of bio-corrosion of materials. The purpose of the work is to increase the durability and performance of external building envelopes made of stone building materials. For this purpose, based on the analysis of the ways of salt penetration into the external enclosing structures and based on the results of field and laboratory studies, an algorithm for the design of external enclosing structures under the influence of salts has been developed. This approach makes it possible to create a reserve of properties of the external building envelopes and helps to increase the durability and performance of the external walls, increase the overhaul time, preserve the appearance of the walls of stone building materials at salt impact. Powder-activated concrete and three-layer building envelopes based on frame concrete are indicated as promising for the formation of building envelopes. Comparative porosity data of powder-activated and traditional concrete are presented. In the developed three-layer structures, the middle layer is made of large-porous concrete, which ensures the persistence of the heat-insulating properties of structures due to the removal of condensed moisture.
    Key words: hygroscopic salts, raw components, building materials, exterior walls of buildings, powder concrete, three-layer structures.
    1. Elchishcheva T. F. Evaluation of the impact of air quality in the city of Tambov on the external building envelope]. Biosfernaya sovmestimost': chelovek, region, tekhnologii, 2014, no. 3 (7), pp. 43-49. (In Russian).
    2. Elchishcheva T. F. Dynamics of the content of impurities in the air of the Central Black Earth region for the design of exterior walling of buildings. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2016, no. 6, pp. 48-51. (In Russian).
    3. Elchishcheva T. F. Humidity regime of buildings with a production environment containing hygroscopic salts. Biosfernaya sovmestimost': chelovek, region, tekhnologii, 2016, no. 4 (16), pp. 13-21. (In Russian).
    4. Elchishcheva T. F. Determination of the humidity regime of buildings in the presence of hygroscopic salts in the wall material. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2017, no. 6, pp. 14-18. (In Russian).
    5. Beregovoy A. M., Beregovoy V. A. Temperature-humidity state of external fences in conditions of phase transitions of moisture and aggressive environmental influences. Regional'naya arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo, 2017, no. 3, pp. 99-104. (In Russian).
    6. Elchishcheva T. F., Yerofeev V. T., Lobanov V. A. Determination of salt content in the material of the external walls of the industrial enterprise building. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2019, no. 6, pp. 34-39. (In Russian).
    7. Yezersky V. A., Elchishcheva T. F. Analysis of the effect of salts on the thermal conductivity of some wall materials. Vestnik Tambovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2008, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 645-651. (In Russian).
    8. Maltsev A. V., Beregovoy A. M., Beregovoy V. A., Derina M. A. The effect of thermal conductivity of the material of external fences in the stage of wetting and freezing on the energy efficiency of buildings. Regional'naya arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 1, pp. 57-61. (In Russian).
    9. Ob'edkov V. A., Feofanova A. I., Yezersky V. A. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of salt-containing stone materials. Voprosy temperaturno-vlazhnostnogo rezhima pamyatnikov istorii i kul'tury: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Questions of temperature and humidity of historical and cultural monuments: collection of articles]. Moscow, Publishing House of the NMS MK USSR, 1980, pp. 18-33. (In Russian).
    10. Bessonov I. V., Baranov V. S., Baranov V. V. et al. Causes of occurrence and methods of eliminating efflorescence on the brick walls of buildings. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 7, pp. 39-43. (In Russian).
    11. Erofeev V. T., Elchishcheva T. F., Rodin A. I. et al. Study of the properties of concrete reinforced concrete structures used in the coastal zone of the Black Sea coast. Transportnye sooruzheniya, 2018, no. 2, p. 5. DOI: 10.15862 / 05SATS218. (In Russian).
    12. Vasilenko M. I. The influence of environmental factors of the environment on the condition of the upper city buildings. Articles of the XXI International scientific and prakt. conf. Kazantip IVF 2013 "Innovative ways to solve the actual problems of basic industries, ecology, energy and resource saving", (June 3-7, 2013, Shchelkino, Crimea). Kharkov, NTMT Publ., 2013, pp. 337-339. (In Russian).
    13. Solomatov V. I., Erofeev V. T., Smirnov V. F. et al. Biologicheskoye soprotivleniye materialov [Biological coresistance of materials]. Saransk, Mordovskiy universitet Publ., 2001. 196 p. (In Russian).
    14. Erofeev V. T., Komokhov P. G., Smirnov V. F. et al. Zashchita zdaniy i sooruzheniy ot mikrobiologicheskikh povrezhdeniy biotsidnymi preparatami na osnove guanidina [Protection of buildings and structures from microbiological damage with biocidal preparations based on guanidine]. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2009. 192 p. (In Russian).
    15. Gagarin V. G., Kozlov V. V., Zubarev K. P. Analysis of the location of the zone of maximum moisture in enclosing structures with different thickness of the insulating layer. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2016, no. 6, pp. 8-12. (In Russian).
    16. Gagarin V. G., Kozlov V. V., Zubarev K. P. Determination of maximum moisture zone on enclosing structures. Cold Climate HVAC 2018: Sustainable Buildings in Cold Climates, 2018, pp. 925-932. DOI:
    17. Aleksandrovsky S. V. Dolgovechnost' naruzhnykh ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [Durability of external enclosing structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2004. 332 p. (In Russian).
    18. Karpenko N. I., Karpenko S. N., Yarmakovsky V. N., Erofeev V. T. On modern methods of ensuring the durability of reinforced concrete structures. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 1, pp. 93-102. (In Russian).
    19. Moskvin V. M., Kapkin M. M, Mazur B. M. et al. Beton dlya stroitel'stva v surovykh klimaticheskikh usloviyakh [Concrete for construction in harsh climatic conditions]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1973. 169 p. (In Russian).
    20. Latypov V. M., Latypova T. V., Lutsyk E. V., Fedorov P. A. Dolgovechnost' betona i zhelezobetona v prirodnykh agressivnykh sredakh [Durability of concrete and reinforced concrete in natural aggressive environments]. Ufa, RITZ UGNTU Publ., 2014. 288 p. (In Russian).
    21. Alekseev S. N., Ivanov F. M., Modra S., Shissl P. Dolgovechnost' zhelezobetona v agressivnykh sredakh [Durability of reinforced concrete in aggressive environments]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990. 320 p. (In Russian).
    22. Young D. Salt attack and rising damp. A guide to salt damp in historic and older buildings. Heritage Council of NSW, Heritage Victoria, South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage, Adelaide City Council. 1991. Available at: (accessed 12.02.2020).
    23. Erofeev V. T., Rodin A. I., Yakunin V. V. et al. Alkali-activated slag binders from rock-wool production wastes. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal, 2018, no. 82(6), pp. 219-227. DOI: 10.18720/MCE.82.20. (In Russian).
    24. Kalashnikov V. I., Gulyaev E. V., Valiev D. M. et al. Highly effective powder-activated concretes of various functional purposes using superplasticizers. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2011, no. 11, pp. 44-47. (In Russian).
    25. Caprielov S. S., Chilin I. A. Ultra-high-strength self-sealing fibrous concrete for monolithic structures. Concrete and reinforced concrete - a look into the future. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2014, vol. 3, pp. 158-164. (In Russian).
    26. Whittaker M., Black L. Current knowledge of external sulfate attack. Advances in Cement Research, 2015, 27(9), pp. 532-545. DOI: 10.1680/adcr.14.00089.
    27. Jiang L., Niu D. Study of deterioration of concrete exposed to different types of sulfate solutions under drying-wetting cycles. Construction and Building Materials, 2016, 117, pp. 88-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.094.
    28. Klyuev S. V., Klyuev A. V., Vatin N. I. Fibrous concrete for the construction industry. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal, 2018, no. 8(84), pp. 41-47. (In Russian).
    29. Bazhenov Yu. M., Korol E. A., Erofeev V. T., Mitina E. A. Ograzhdayushchiye konstruktsii s ispol'zovaniyem betonov nizkoy teploprovodnosti (osnovy teorii, metody rascheta i tekhnologicheskoye proyektirovaniye) [Enclosing structures using low thermal conductivity concretes (fundamentals of theory, calculation methods and technological design)]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2008. 320 p. (In Russian).
  • For citation: Erofeev V. T., Elchishcheva T. F., Vatin N. I., Mitina E. A., Rodin A. I., Erofeeva I. V. Designing Structures for Exterior Walls of Buildings at Adverse Environmental Effects. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering], 2020, no. 8, pp. 4-15. (In Russian). DOI: 10.33622/0869-7019.2020.08.04-15.