## Contents of issue ¹ 1 (january) 2016 |

- BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
- Nanostructuring Of Concrete Materials
- UDC 691.322

**Boris V. GUSEV**, e-mail: infî-rae@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, ul. Obraztsova, 9, Moscow 127994, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. For the first time there has been proposed nanostructuring of coarse disperse materials, of concrete type. The existing methods of grinding in construction materials provide obtaining of dispersibility of particles 10-50 mm (microns), including cement particles. It is preferable, during obtaining more fine particles, to apply cavitation technology in suspensions. The article covers nanostructuring of concrete systems due to introduction of ultra- and nanodispersed mineral agents. In the process, grinding is being made in cavitation installations due to additional grinding of mineral agents during preparation of concrete mixtures. Nanostructuring provides compaction of concrete structures, and increase of strength parameters 1,5-2 times.

**Key words**: concrete materials, physical model, mineral fillers, cavitation grinding, structure, nano-structuring, strength - REFERENCES

1. Gusev B. V. The development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Kompozitsionnye stroitel'nye materialy. Teoriya i praktika [Composite building materials. Theory and practice]. Mezhdunar. nauch.-tekhn. konf. Penza, Povolzhskiy dom znaniy Publ., 2007, pp. 70-73. (In Russian).

2. Melekhov I. V. Fiziko-khimicheskaya evolyutsiya tverdogo veshchestva (nanotekhnologiya) [Physico-chemical evolution of solid matter (nanotechnology)]. Moscow, BINOM. Laboratoriya znaniy Publ., 2006. 309 p. (In Russian).

3. Shabanova N. A., Popov V. V., Sarkisov P. D. Khimiya i tekhnologiya nanodispersnykh oksidov [Chemistry and technology of nanodispersed oxides]. Moscow, Akademkniga Publ., 2007. 309 p. (In Russian).

4. Generalov M. B. Kriokhimicheskaya nanotekhnologiya [Cryochemical nanotechnology]. Moscow, Akademkniga Publ., 2006. 325 p. (In Russian).

5. Blinkov I. V., Manukhin A. V. Nanodispersnye i granulirovannye materialy, poluchennye v impul'sivnoy plazme [Nano-dispersed and granulated materials obtained in impulsive plasma]. Moscow, MISIS Publ., 2005. 367 p. (In Russian).

6. Gusev B. V., Minsadrov I. N., Kudryavtseva V. D., et al. An energy-saving technology of production of fine concrete. Nadezhnost' i dolgovechnost' stroitel'nykh materialov, konstruktsiy i osnovaniy fundamentov [The reliability and durability of building materials, structures and foundations]. Materialy V mezhdunar. konf. VolgGASU. 23-24 aprelya. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2009, pp. 13-19. (In Russian).

7. Gusev B. V., Minsadrov I. N., Selivanov N. P. Nanovyazhushchie [Nadovezuje]. Patent RF, no. 2412919, 2009. (In Russian).

8. Nanonauka i nanotekhnologii: entsiklopediya sistem zhizneobespecheniya [Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: encyclopedia of life support systems]. Moscow, YuNESKO, EOLSS, 2009. 992 p. (In Russian). - Durability of Ñement Ñomposites Based on Biocidal Portland Cement with an Active Mineral Additive in Terms of Exposure to the Model Environment of Bacteria
- UDC 691.542:66.022.32:620.193.81

**Vladimir T. EROFEEV**^{1}, e-mail: AL_Rodin@mail.ru

**Vladimir I. KALASHNIKOV**^{2}, e-mail: kalashnikov_vi@mail.ru

**Vasily F. SMIRNOV**^{3}, e-mail: biodeg@mail.ru

**Sergey N. KARPUSHIN**^{1}, e-mail: karpushin1990snk@mail.ru

**Alexander I. RODIN**^{1}, e-mail: AL_Rodin@mail.ru

**Alexander M. KRASNOGLAZOV**^{1}, e-mail: karpushin1990snk@mail.ru

**Artem Yu. CHELMAKIN**^{1}, e-mail: artem.chelmakin@yandex.ru

^{1}Ogarev Mordovia State University, ul. Bolshevistskaya, 68, Saransk 430005, Russian Federation

^{2}Penza State University of Architecture and Construction, ul. Titova, 28, Penza 440028, Russian Federation

^{3}Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, prospekt Gagarina, 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article presents the results of comparative studies of the durability of cement composites made with the use of general purpose Portland cement and cements with biocidal properties. To obtain the cement stone, three types of binders prepared in the laboratory, ordinary Portland, biocidal Portland cement, biocidal Portland cement with an active mineral additive (fly ash), have been studied. As an aggressive environment, modeling environment of bacteria which were aqueous solutions of ammonia, sulfuric and nitric acids were considered. The studies were conducted with the use of mathematical methods of experiment planning. As a planning matrix, the plan Kono consisting of 13 experiments was used. Implementation of the planning matrix made it possible to obtain a regression equation according to which the graphs were plotted. Dependences of changes of the resistance coefficient of studied compositions after testing in the modeling environment have been established.

**Key words**: biocidal cements, active mineral additives, cement composites, bacterial environment modeling, biodegradation. - REFERENCES

1. Erofeev V. T., Kaznacheev S. V., Bogatov A. D., et. al. Influence of modifying additives on the stability of cement composites in conditions of model bacterial protection. Vestnik Dagestanskogo gosudarstvennogo tehnicheskogo universiteta. Tehnicheskie nauki, 2012, no. 26, pp. 103-107. (In Russian).

2. Erofeev V. T., Komohov P. G., Smirnov V. F., et. al. Zashhita zdanij i sooruzhenij ot biopovrezhdenij biocidnymi preparatami na osnove guanidina [Protecting buildings and facilities against biological damage biocidal preparations on the basis of guanidine]. St. Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 2009. 192 p. (In Russian).

3. Erofeev V. T., Bogatov A. D., Bogatova S. N., Smirnov V. F., Rimshin V. I., Kurbatov V. L. Bioresistant building composites on the basis of glass wastes. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 2015, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 661-669.

4. Kasimkina M. M., Svetlov D. A., Kaznacheev S. V. Investigation of physical and mechanical properties of epoxy composites with fungicide additive "Teflex". Transportnoe stroitel'stvo, 2009, no. 2, pp. 29-30. (In Russian).

5. Kondrashhenko V. I. Application of computer materials in biotechnological research. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2006, no. 3, pp. 76. (In Russian).

6. Ivashhenko Ju. G., Zheltov P. K., Homjakov I. V. The durability of composite building materials. Resursojenergojeffektivnye tehnologii v stroitel'nom komplekse regiona, 2012, no. 2, pp. 89-92. (In Russian).

7. Kalashnikov V. I., Erofeev V. T., Moroz M. N., et. al. Nanogidrosilikatnye technology in the production of concrete. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2014, no. 5, pp. 88-91. (In Russian).

8. Rozhanskaja A. M., Kozlova I. A., Andrejuk E. I. Biocidy v bor'be s korroziej betona [Biocides to combat the corrosion of concrete]. Biopovrezhdenija i zashhita materialov biocidami. Moscow, 1988. Pp. 82-91. (In Russian).

9. Starcev S. A. Methods of eliminating the consequences of biological damage of constructions. Biopovrezhdenija i biokorrozija v stroitel'stve: Materialy Mezhdunar. nauch.-tehn. konf. [Biodeterioration and biocorrosion in construction: Materials of the International Scientific and Technical Conference]. Saransk, Izd-vo Mordov. Un-ta Publ., 2004. 256 p. (In Russian).

10. Stroganov V. F., Sagadeev E. V. Biodegradation of building materials. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2015, no. 5, pp. 5-9. (In Russian).

11. Stroganov V. F., Sagadeev E. V. Problems biodamages mineral construction materials. Izvestija KGSU, 2014, no. 3, pp. 140-147. (In Russian).

12. Javaherdashti R. Microbiologically influenced corrosion an engineering insight. Springer-Verlag. UK, 2008. 164 p.

13. Little B. J., Lee J. S. Little microbiologically influenced corrosion. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2007. 294 p.

14. Ramesh Babu B., Maruthamuthu S., Rajasekar A., [etc.]. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in dairy effluent. Spring, vol. 3, no. 2, 2006, pp. 159-166.

15. Lesovik V. S., Chulkova I. L. Influence of composition of materials on the structure of building composites. Vestnik Sibirskoj gosudarstvennoj avtomobil'no-dorozhnoj akademii, 2015, no. 4, pp. 69-79. (In Russian).

16. Lesovik V. S., Zagorodnjuk L. H., Belikov D. A., et. al. Effective dry mixes for repair and restoration works. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2014, no. 7, pp. 82-85. (In Russian).

17. Makridin N. I., Tarakanov O. V., Maksimova I. N., Surov I. A. The time factor in the formation of the phase composition of cement stone structure. Regional'naja arhitektura i stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 2, pp. 26-31. (In Russian).

18. Maksimova I. N., Makridin N. I., Simakov M. V. Struktura i konstrukcionnye svojstva betona. Regional'naja arhitektura i stroitel'stvo, 2008, no. 2, pp. 22-27. (In Russian).

19. Tarakanov O. V. Betony s modificirujushhimi dobavkami na osnove vtorichnogo syr'ja [Concrete with builders on the basis of secondary raw materials]. Penza, PGUAS Publ., 2004. 564 p. (In Russian).

20. Cherkasov V. D., Dudynov S. V., Buzulukov V. I. Biomodifier construction purposes. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel'stvo, 2011. no. 6, pp. 23-29. (In Russian). - Diatomite Rocks of Yamal Region in Technology of Building Materials for Arctic Conditions
- UDC 666.189.32

**Konstantin S. IVANOV**^{1}, e-mail: sillicium@bk.ru

**Alyona A. MELNIKOVA**^{2}

**Evgeniy A. KOROTKOV**^{1}, e-mail: the_djon@bk.ru

**Pavel V. SMIRNOV**^{3}, e-mail: geolog.08@mail.ru

^{1}Institute of the Earth Cryosphere of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, ul. Malygina, 86, Tyumen 625000, Russian Federation

^{2}Tyumen State Architectural University, ul. Lunacharskogo, 25, Tyumen 625001, Russian Federation

^{3}Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, ul. Volodarskogo, 38, Tyumen 625000, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The problem of producing granulated foam glass-ceramic on the basis of diatomite rocks of Yamal for the development of Arctic is considered. Nowadays this type of raw material is not processed at all, thought its deposits are significant. Taking into account the current experience in the production of foam glass ceramic from the opal-cristobalite rocks of various deposits of Russia, an alternative way to obtain this material from the diatomite deposits of the Novo-Urengoy field is proposed. A brief characteristic of the raw material, description of a pilot unit and the technology proposed for production of foam glass-ceramic from this material are presented. The obtained material can be classified as rounded form granules which have a multi-fractional composition: from fractions of millimeters to some centimeters. Basic properties of this bulk material in the initial state and for different fractions were measured in accordance with the enacted specifications. Granules have high physical-mechanical properties; their low thermal conductivity and water absorption make it possible to use them for thermo-stabilization of foundations. The compositions of lightweight concretes of normal hardening with the use of obtained granules, depending on the fraction of filler and binder consumption, were investigated. The average density of samples, compression strength, and a coefficient of softening were determined. The study of thermal conductivity and moisture sorption of concretes demonstrated the prospects of their use for construction of wall enclosing structures. It is established that availability of large voids in the wall block significantly increases the heat conductivity of masonry. The average value of the thermal conductivity of such masonry is almost twice higher than the thermal conductivity of a solid concrete specimen despite the lower average density of a hollow block.

**Key words**: diatomites, Arctic conditions, opal-cristobalite rocks, granulated foam glass-ceramic, thermal conductivity, light concretes. - REFERENCES

1. Nesterov I. I., Generalov P. P., Podsosova L. L. West Siberian province of silica-opal rocks Sovetskaja geologija, 1984, no. 3, pp. 35-40. (In Russian).

2. Smirnov P. V. West Siberian province opal-cristobalite rocks - mineral base multi-purpose. Novye tekhnologii - neftegazovomu regionu : materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [New technologies - oil and gas region : materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference]. Tyumen, TyumGNGU Publ., 2013, vol. 1, pp. 80-82. (In Russian).

3. Ivanenko V. N., Belik Y. G. Kremnistye porody i novye vozmozhnosti ih primenenija [Silica rocks and new possibilities for their application]. Harkov, HGU Publ., 1971. 132 p. (In Russian).

4. Kazanceva L. K., Storozhenko G. I., Nikitin A. I., Kiseljov G. A. Insulation material from opal raw materials. Stroitelnye materialy, 2013, no. 5, pp. 85-88. (In Russian).

5. Kazmina O. V., Vereshhagin V. I. Methodological principles of synthesis of foam glass-crystal materials on low-temperature technology. Stroitelnye materialy, 2014, no. 8, pp. 41-45. (In Russian).

6. Ketov P. A. Production of building materials from hydrated polysilicates. Stroitelnye materialy, 2012, no. 11, pp. 22-24. (In Russian).

7. Orlov A. D. Optimized one-step technology of foamed glass production, based on the low-temperature synthesis of glass phase. Stroitelnye materialy, 2015, no. 1, pp. 24-26. (In Russian).

8. Nikitin A. I., Storozhenko G. I., Kazanceva L. K., Vereshhagin V. I. Thermo-insulation materials and products obtained from the tripoli rocks of Potaninskoe field. Stroitelnye materialy, 2014, no. 8, pp. 34-36. (In Russian).

9. Senik N. A., Meshkov A. V., Vinickij A. L., Vakalova T. V., Vereshhagin V. I. Production of highly effective thermo-insulation material from diatomite by the dint of high-temperature sintering. Tehnika i tehnologija silikatov, 2012, no. 4, vol. 19, pp. 6-12. (In Russian).

10. Lazutkina O. R., Kazak, A. K., Temereva, A. A., Nedopolz S. O. Prospects of using diatomite material from the Sverdlovsk Region in enameling production. Steklo i keramika, 2006, no. 3, pp. 28-29. (In Russian). - Within Global Scientific Community'S Line Of Sight
- UDC 691.32

**Mario Alberto CHIORINO**, e-mail: mario.chiorino@polito.it

Sede di Architettura Castello del Valentino, Viale Mattioli, 39, I-10125 Torino, Italy

**Vyacheslav R. FALIKMAN**, e-mail: vfalikman@yandex.ru

NIIZhB named after A. A. Gvozdev, SRC «Stroitel'stvo», ul. 2-ya Institutskaya, 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Results of the First International Workshop on "Durability & Sustainability of Concrete Structures" in Bologna (Italy) organized by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and other organizations are considered. The collection of materials of the workshop (ACI SP-305) contains forty-eight papers selected by experts which cover such topics as the reduction in green house gases in the cement and concrete industry, the use of recycled materials, innovative binders and geo-polymers, cost assessment of the life cycle of buildings and structures, principles of design and provision of functional resilience of reinforced concrete structures, repair, restoration, and monitoring of their conditions. The workshop has in fact been considered as a meeting of the highest international level to discuss the essence of durability and sustainable development, taking into account, first of all, the worldwide harmonization of codes and standards for structural concretes that will allow concrete to remain the main structural material in the foreseeable future.

**Key words**: structural concrete, durability, sustainable development. - ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. TOWN PLANNING
- Adaptation of the Retail Complex «Children World» to Modern Use with Restoration of Facades in Accordance with the Approved Subject Matter of Protection
- Reduction in Transport and Pedestrian Gaps in Railroad Areas of Moscow
- UDC 711.553:711.7:725.95

**Natalia A. LARINA**, e-mail: nataliya.larina@gmail.com

Moscow Architectural Institute (State academy), ul. Rozhdestvenka, 11/4, block 1, bld. 4, Moscow 107031, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Railway roads became the reason for rupturing communication links between urban areas on the territory of which their tracks pass. The result of this is long extra mileage of transport, additional load on highways, increased risk at the intersections of pedestrian flows and railway tracks. In the process of analysis of the current situation of railway areas a detailed analysis of existing gaps was made, reasons for their formation, types of relationships was determined, an assessment of their efficiency and safety was made. The complex method of analysis of domestic and foreign data has revealed the dependence of means of architectural-spatial organization of railway areas on terrain and functional environment. Data obtained made it possible to develop an universal algorithm for increasing the number of links, improving the safety and profitability of these areas on the basis of the terrain, environment and other indicators. When designing multi-functional complexes as a communication link within the limits of railways, this algorithm may have both practical and educational-methodical application.

**Key words**: architectural-spatial organization of areas, communication gaps in railway areas, transport overmileage, pedestrian ways, railways, overpass, underpass, overbridge, bridges. - REFERENCES

1. Stroitel'nyy mir. Available at: http://discuss.genplanmos.ru/form.html (accessed 30.12.2015). (In Russian).

2. Agranovich G.M. Problems of formation of railway areas of the city. Arhitektura. Stroitel'stvo. Dizajn, 1998, no. 2 (8), pp. 40-45. (In Russian).

3. Programma razvitiya Moskvy "Moskva - gorod, udobnyy dlya zhizni" [The program of development of Moscow "Moscow is a city comfortable for living"]. Available at: http://www.dszn.ru/activities/ M2025.pdf (accessed 30.12.2015). (In Russian).

4. Korotaev V. P. Road that separate us - what to do? On the prospects of reorganization of the Moscow railway hub. Arhitekturnyj vestnik, 2009, no. 3 (108), pp. 44-47. (In Russian).

5. Kanunnikov M. N. Mnogofunktsional'nye kompleksy v prirel'sovykh territoriyakh sovremennogo goroda (na primere Moskvy) [Mixed-use development in railroad territories of the modern city (on example of Moscow)]. Diss. kand. arhit. Ìoscow, 2002. Pp. 35-39. (In Russian).

6. Kanunnikov M. N. Railroad site in the modern city. Arhitektura. Stroitel'stvo. Dizajn, 2001, no. 01(23), pp. 66-72. (In Russian).

7. Adresnaya investitsionnaya programma goroda Moskvy na 2014-2017 gody [Targeted investment program of Moscow for 2014-2017]. Available at: http://stroi.mos.ru/uploads/user_files/files/aip/ pril1(1).pdf (accessed 11.01.16). (In Russian).

8. Pokka E. V. Features of the functional content of the recreational bridges. Izvestija KGASU, 2013, no. 1 (23), pp. 39-47. (In Russian).

9. Pokka E. V., Agisheva I. N. Functional peculiarity of modern recreational bridges. Izvestija KGASU. 2013. no. 1(23), pp. 48-55. (In Russian).

10. Pokka E. V. The basic principles of architectural spatial formation of multipurpose pedestrian bridges. Izvestija KGASU, 2014, no. 1(27), pp. 55-61. (In Russian).

11. Pokka E. V., Agisheva I. N. Architectural-spatial structural elements of the multifunctional pedestrian bridges. Izvestija KGASU, 2014, no. 1(27), pp. 62-67. (In Russian).

12. Mikhaylova E. V. The Moscow underground. Experience and prospects of development). Arhitektura i stroitel'stvo Moskvy, 2006, no. 6, pp. 30-36. (In Russian).

13. Mikhaylova E. V. Architectural development of underground urban space. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2007, no. 1, pp. 40-42. (In Russian).

14. Mikhaylova E. V. Ways of the development of public-trade complexes and their underground infrastructure. Arhitektura. Stroitel'stvo. Dizajn, 2007, no. 02(47), pp. 18-21. (In Russian).

15. Transport facilities. LinksBooks, Carles Broto. 2012. Pp.184-192.

16. Architizer. Available at: http://architizer.com/ projects/puls-railway-crossing/ (accessed 28.12.2015).

17. Architizer. Available at: http://architizer.com/ projects/vienna-central-station/ (accessed 28.12.2015).

18. Urban rail transit. Design manual. Design Media Publishing Limited. 2013. Pp. 24-41, 211. - BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
- Standard Regulation of Reliability and Safety of Corrosion Protection Systems of Metal Structures
- UDC 691.714:620.169.1

**Vladimir P. KOROLOV**, e-mail: center_sts@ukr.net

**Igor V. KUSCHENKO**

Pryazovskyi State Technical University, ul. Universytetskaya, 7, Mariupol 87500, Ukraine

**Abstract**. The paper deals with theoretical and practical aspects of improving the regulatory and technical framework for assuring the quality and safety of building metal structures and their protective coatings under corrosive environment impact. The methodological approach to the control over technological safety of structures and installations based on the level of industrial facility corrosion hazard is outlined. A systematized description of specified impacts and representative values of corrosion aggressiveness factors is given. Design characteristics of corrosion resistance, durability, and maintainability of structures and their protective coatings are presented. A procedure of choice of primary and secondary protection against corrosion on the basis of the program providing reliability, evaluation of survivability on the basis of limit state criteria is determined. To design the protection against corrosion, classification features of steel structures and their protective coatings are specified on the basis of criticality rating. Design indices of steel structures durability are justified. The developed methodology includes a computational and experimental evaluation of reliability and availability factors of corrosion protection with due regard for uncertainty of design models of corrosion hazard of building projects.

**Key words**: reliability, structural and technological safety, robustness, limit state methodology, corrosion resistance, durability, means and methods of corrosion protection, system of structure corrosion protection. - REFERENCES

1. Telichenko V. I. Comprehensive construction safety. Vestnik MGSU, 2010, no. 4, pp. 10-17. (In Russian).

2. Vostrov V. K., Presnyakov N. I. Updating of building specifications and mechanical safety of building structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 6, pp. 6-10. (In Russian).

3. Shimanovskiy A. V. [et al.]. Tekhnicheskaya diagnostika i preduprezhdenie avariynykh situatsiy konstruktsiy zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Technical diagnostics and prevention of emergency situations of constructions of buildings and structures]. Kiev, Stal Publ., 2008. 462 p. (In Russian).

4. Volberg Yu. L. Korrozionnaya stoykost' stroitel'nykh metallokonstruktsiy [The corrosion resistance of metal construction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987. 42 p. (In Russian).

5. Gorokhov E. V., Brudka Ya., Lubin'ski M. [et al.]. Dolgovechnost' stal'nykh konstruktsiy v usloviyakh rekonstruktsii [The durability of steel structures under reconstruction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1994. 488 p. (In Russian).

6. Onosov G. V. Science against corrosion. Stroitel'stvo, 2008, no. 6, pp. 189-192. (In Russian).

7. Korolev V. P., Ryzhenkov A. A., Gibalenko A. N. Modern approaches to quality management of corrosion protection and corrosion control of metal structures. Promyshlennoe stroitel'stvo i inzhenernye sooruzheniya, 2009, no. 4, pp. 7-11. (In Russian).

8. Korolov V. P. [et al.]. Estimation of steel structure corrosion risk level in calculation according to limiting states. EUROCORR-2010. The European Corrosion Congress, 13-17 Sept. 2010. Moscow, 2010. P. 534.

9. Filatov Yu. V., Korolev V. P. Ensuring process safety and corrosion protection of fixed assets and objects of infrastructure of the mining-metallurgical complex of the company "Donetskstal". Innovatsionnyy daydzhest. Donetsk, PrAO DMZ Publ., 2012, pp. 34-36. (In Russian).

10. Korolov V. P. [et al.]. Management of the quality of corrosion protection of structural steel based on corrosion risk level. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A & B, 2013, no. 11, vol. 3, pp. 740-747. - About Calculation of Wooden Structures According to Deformed Scheme
- UDC 624.011.1:539.32(083.75)

**Dmitriy K. ARLENINOV**, e-mail: dkarleninov@mail.ru

National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. There are two concepts of calculation of wooden structures according to the deformed scheme: linear and nonlinear. In SP 64.13330.2011 and earlier in SNiP 11-25-80 the technique of linear calculation was adopted, but in the SP a new value of the long-time modulus of elasticity, which almost twice exceeds the standard value previously recorded in the SNiP 11-25-80, is proposed. Since this value of the modulus is questionable, tests of wooden samples for bending under the sustained load have been conducted. The test results show that actually the long-term modulus of elasticity is below 7500 MPa i.e. the ratio unreliable. It is recommended to include the previous value of the long-term modulus of elasticity of timber along the fibers in the new edition of SP. The need for preparing proposals for the revision of calculation provisions of design norms concerning the replacement of the linear calculation method with non-linear is questionable. Arguments against this initiative are presented. In particular, there are no reliable experimental data on deformation characteristics of wood, on the contradiction between exact methods of calculation and the Federal legislation on safety of buildings and structures.

**Key words**: long-term modulus of elasticity of wood, wood structures, linear and non-linear methods of calculation, strength reserve, deformed scheme. - REFERENCES

1. Klimenko V. Z. Stiffness analysis of wood structures and calculation of their durability according to deformed scheme. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2012, no. 6, pp. 69-73. (In Russian).

2. Klimenko V. Z., Mihajlovskij D. V., Kovalenko M. S. The search for truth in the moduli of elasticity of wood in the calculation of compressed-bent elements. Sb. nauch. tr., Odessa, OGASA Publ., 2012, pp. 115-123. (In Russian).

3. Klimenko V. Z. Phenomenological approach to the calculation of compressed-bent wooden elements. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2011, no. 1, pp. 7-11. (In Russian).

4. Linkov V. I Modeling of wood composite section on flexible relations teory A. Rshanisina. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2011, no. 5, pp. 30-35. (In Russian).

5. Linkov H. V. Stress-strain state of wooden beams of composite section KM-joints under long-term load. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 7, pp. 44-48. (In Russian).

6. Pogoreltsev A. A., Pyatikrestovskiy K. P. Substantiation of rated values of elasticity modules for calculation of timber structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 10, pp. 33-35. (In Russian).

7. Pyatikrestovskiy K. P. Problem of choice of modulus of elasticity for calculation of durability, stability and stiffness analysis of wood structures. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2012, no. 6, pp. 7. (In Russian).

8. Arleninov P. D. Modeling features of composite metal-concrete structure in terms of electrical portals of Zeyskaya hydro, crane trestle of Sayano-Shushenskaya hydro, "Evolution" helicoid high-rise tower. II Mezhdunarodnaya konf. po betonu i zhelezobetonu [International conference on concrete and reinforced concrete]. Moscow, 12-16 may 2014. Vol. 4, Pp. 121-128. (In Russian).

9. Arleninov D. K. About new normative value of wood elasticity modulus. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 3, pp. 19-20. (In Russian).

10. Ivanov Y. M. The method of determining the deformation of wooden structures in coatings of buildings. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo, 1990, no. 6, pp. 107-109. (In Russian).

11. Tsepaev V. A. Evaluation of the modulus of elasticity of wood structures. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2003, no. 2, pp. 11-13. (In Russian). - Estimate of Operational Efficiency of Coating of Combined Insulated Roll Roofs
- UDC 692.4

**Vyacheslav N. CHERNOIVAN**, e-mail: vnchernoivan@list.ru

**Anna V. CHERNOIVAN**, e-mail: bel_anna@list.ru

**Nikolay V. CHERNOIVAN**, e-mail: chernoivan@inbox.ru

Brest State Technical University, ul. Moskovskaya, 267, Brest 224013, Republic îf Belarus

**Abstract**. At present, the largest share of constructed buildings is residential houses with bearing reinforced concrete structures of roofs (pre-fabricated or monolithic), that's why the development of an efficient structural-technological scheme of a combined insulated roll roof is an actual task. The results of full-scale studies of technical conditions of operating combined roofs from melting bituminous-polymer roll materials are presented; main reasons for the appearance of leakages in roll roofs are defined. With due regard for technical normative legal acts acting in the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation, proposals concerning the efficient structural-technological solution of combined roofs are made. Recommendations on the use of claydite gravel instead of dry mixes for making roof pitches make it possible to significantly reduce the loading on bearing structures of the combined coating and improve the level of mechanization of work execution. The list of PVC-membranes, produced in the Russian Federation and other countries presented in the article, and considered technological solutions of fastening of PVC- membranes to the base of the combined coating are the base for designing combined roofs. The conclusion about reasonability to use PVC-membranes for arrangement of roofing coating instead of melting bituminous-polymer roll materials is made.

**Key words**: combined roofing, bituminous-polymeric roll materials, PVC-membrane, roof pitches, haydite. - REFERENCES

1. Chernoivan V. N., Leonovich S. N., Chernoivan N. V. To the estimate of the engineering state of the maintained combined roll roofing. Stroitel`naja nauka i tehnika, 2011, no. 3(36), pp. 47-51. (In Russian).

2. Sidenko D. A., Belevich V. B. Working life of plane roll roofing. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel`stvo, 2004, no. 8, pp. 20-21. (In Russian).

3. Strokinov V. N., Kovalyov S. S. Rolled materials for plane roofing: more expensively, more cheaply or is more working life. Stroitel`nye materialy, 2001, no. 9, pð. 13. (In Russian).

4. Topchij V. D. Reconstruction of coverings of civil buildings. Zhilishñhnoe stroitel`stvo, 2007, no. 8, pp. 6-8. (In Russian).

5. Chernoivan V. N., Leonovich S. N. Teploizolyatsionnye, krovel'nye i otdelochnye raboty [Thermal insulant, roofing and finishing works]. Minsk, Novoe znanie Publ., 2014, 272 p. (In Russian).

6. Zernov A. E. Reliability of a plane roofing. Stroitel`nye materialy, 2006, no. 5, p. 13. (In Russian).

7. Gushcha E. V. Reliable insulant of roofings by Sika company materials. Krovel`nye i izoljacionnye materialy, 2012, no. 4, pp. 10-11. (In Russian).

8. Belyakov V. Polymeric waterproofing Ïëàñòôîèë® vs bitumen. Krovel`nye i izoljacionnye materialy, 2015, no. 2, pp. 15-17. (In Russian). - BUILDING MECHANICS
- Method for Determining the Minimum Load and Formation Coordinates of a Spatial Crack in Reinforced Concrete Structures in Torsion with Bending
- UDC 624.012.045

**Alexey S. SALNIKOV**, å-mail: ego2103@ukr.net

Bryansk State Engineering Technological University, prospekt Stanke Dimitrova, 3, Bryansk 241037, Russian Federation

**Natalia V. KLYUYEVÀ**, å-mail: klynavit@yandex.ru, Southwest State University, ul. 50 let Oktyabrya, 94, Kursk 305040, Russian Federation

**Vladimir I. KOLCHUNOV**, å-mail: vikolchunov@mail.ru, National Aviation University, prospekt Kosmonavta Komarova, 1, Kiev 03680, Ukraine

**Abstract**. The method for determining the minimum load and coordinates of a spatial crack formation in reinforced concrete structures under the action of torsion with bending is proposed. This method is based on working prerequisites and constructed equations. Achieving limit values by main deformations of concrete elongation is accepted as a condition for the formation of spatial cracks in the course of torsion with bending (these values are treated as the parameters that appear in rules). The constructed method is applied to the second type of spatial cracks crossing only the transverse reinforcement which are formed at an arbitrary point within the volume of the structure, when the transverse force exceeds the fracturing, and adjacent its apex to the concentrated force, as well as to the spatial cracks of the third type, crossing only the transverse reinforcement, which formed at the arbitrary point within the volume of the structure at the transverse force acceding the fracturing that can go anywhere in the upper or side faces of the compressed reinforced concrete structure. The physical interpretation of the resulting solution is that it allows to find the minimum generalized load, which corresponds to the formation of the first spatial crack at the arbitrary point of the structure.

**Key words**: reinforced concrete structures, resistance to torsion with bending, crack formation, spatial cracks, method of calculation. - REFERENCES

1. Salnikov A., Kolchunov Vl., Yakovenko I. The computational model of spatial formation of cracks in reinforced concrete constructions in torsion with bending. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2015, vol. 725-726, pp. 784-789.

2. Salnikov A. S., Kolchunov Vl. I., Yakovenko I. A. Computational model of formation of spatial cracks of the first type in reinforced concrete structures under torsion with bending. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2015, no. 3, pp. 35-40. (In Russian).

3. Klyuyeva N. V., Yakovenko I. A., Usenko N. V. On calculation of width of opening of inclined cracks of the third type in composite reinforced concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoye stroitelstvo, 2014, no. 2, pp. 8-11. (In Russian).

4. Bondarenko V. M., Kolchunov V. I. Raschetnyye modeli silovogo soprotivleniya zhelezobetona [Computational model of force resistance of reinforced concrete]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004. 472 ð. (In Russian).

5. Spravochnik proyektirovshchika promyshlennykh, zhilykh i obshchestvennykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Directory of designer industrial, residential and public buildings and structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1972. 600 p. (In Russian).

6. Prochnost, ustoychivost, kolebaniya : spravochnik [Strength, stability, vibrations : Handbook]. Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye Publ., 1968. Vol. 1. 831 p.; Vol. 2. 463 p.; Vol. 3. 567 p. (In Russian). - The Stress-Strain State of Cubic Samples of Anisotropic Concrete in the Course of Compression Test
- UDC 690.10:666.97

**Lev M. ABRAMOV**, e-mail: levabramov@yandex.ru

**Alexandr V. OREKHOV**, e-mail: orexov1975@mail.ru

Kostroma State Agricultural Academy, Uchebnyy gorodok, 34, pos. Karavaevo, Kostromskoy rayon, Kostromskaya obl. 156530, Russian Federation

**Igor L. ABRAMOV**, e-mail: levabramov@yandex.ru

PrintBoks, prospekt Kalinina, 17, Tver 170001, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Issues of the concrete non-uniform elasticity are considered. The method for calculation of deformations and stresses for transversal-isotropic material is presented. Various values of elasticity modules at tension and compression as well as the same values of transverse deformation at the same types of loading are adopted as input data. Equations of the elastic theory are used for development of the computational mathematical model. Results of the numerical solution are obtained with the help of the program complex "ANSYS". An analysis of destruction types makes it possible to consider a possibility to use deformation criteria as main indexes for concrete strength evaluation. The proposed methodology of design of building structures takes into account non-uniform elasticity of concrete as every element, when calculated, has its zones of tension and compression.

**Key words**: unconfined compression, concrete sample, orthotropic body, tensoresistor, stress-strain diagram, transversal-isotropic material. - REFERENCES

1. Abramov L. M. Estimation of the effect of the friction forces in the determination of the compressive strength to control samples. Beton i zhelezobeton, 2014, no. 1, pp. 6-9. (In Russian).

2. Abramov L. M., Galkina M. A. On some peculiarities of determination of mechanical characteristics of concrete strength under uniaxial compression. Tekhnologii betonov, 2014, no. 11, pp. 13-16. (In Russian).

3. Ambartsumyan S. A. Teoriya anizotropnykh obolochek [Theory of anisotropic shells] . Moscow, Fizmatgiz Publ. 384 p. (In Russian).

4. Lekhnitskiy S. G. Teoriya uprugosti anizotropnogo tela [Theory of elasticity of an anisotropic body]. Moscow; Leningrad, Gostekhteoretizdat Publ., 1950. 300 p. (In Russian).

5. Chigarev A. V. ANSYS dlya inzhenerov [ANSYS for engineers]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 2004. 512 ð. (In Russian).

6. Zhidkov V. A. Primenenie sistemy ANSYS k resheniyu zadach geometricheskogo i konechno-elementnogo modelirovaniya [System application of ANSYS to solve problems of geometric and finite element modeling]. Nizhny Novgorod, NNSU Research center "Information and telecommunication systems" Publ., 2006. 115 ð. (In Russian). - Theory of Stability of Multilayer Orthotropic Shallow Thin-Walled Building Structures of Shell and Plate Type with Layers Inhomogeneous across the Thickness
- UDC 624.07:534.1

**Zhmagul S. NUGUZHINOV**, e-mail: kazmirr@mail.ru

**Anatoli S. BOZHENOV**, e-mail: kaip.bozhenov@yandex.kz

**Alexey Yu. KUROKHTIN**, e-mail: kurohtinau@mail.ru

**Madi Y. ZHAKIBEKOV**, e-mail:varvar_kz@mail.ru

**Yulia N. PCHELNIKOVA**, e-mail: pmakcvit@mail.ru

Kazakh Multidisciplinary Reconstruction and Development Institute at Karaganda State Technical University, bul'var Mira, 56, Karaganda 100027, Respublika Kazakhstan

**Abstract**. A goal of this work is to build the non-classical theory of stability of multilayer shallow shells and plates with orthotropic layers which are stressed by loads acting in a coordinate plane. The theory is based on hypotheses obtained by generalizing the classical theory of shallow shells with due regard for the pressure of layers on each other, the extension of the normal line during the deformation process, transverse shear in layers as well as parametrical members of higher-order term that are not taken into account by the classical theory. All these factors and orthotropism of the layers' material are considered by adding only one new function which is named as a shear function. For derivation of resolving equations, the variational principle of elastic stability of V.V. Bolotin is used. It makes it possible to take into account in a strict form the members of equations on accuracy by an order of magnitude greater in comparison with the classical theory. As a result, a system of resolving equations of 12th order has been obtained, while other non-classical theories have higher order of equations. The improved expression for parametrical members that contain the external loads and directly affect on the stability of plates and shells and refine the value of critical load is presented. Further, the equations system is transformed into a combined form by adding the force function in a common known form that allows to reduce, in some cases, the system order to 8. The results adjusted to number are given. There are comparisons for the problems with the solutions. The case of stability of the revetment of a three layer plate when the modulus of elastic of the filler varies in thickness is considered. It effects on the values of critical loads of revetments due to the interaction of revetments with an elastic base, the role of which the filler is performed. The system of equations makes it possible to solve the problems of flexure, for which examples of solution are also given.

**Key words**: nonclassical theory, orthotropism of layers material, factors of higher order, shear function, stability of shallow shells and plates. - REFERENCES

1. Bozhenov A. Sh. The formation of hypotheses for constructing non-classical theory of shallow shells with inhomogeneous orthotropic layers. Stroitelnaya mehanika plastin I obolochek. Trudy Karagandinskogo politechnicheskogo instituta [Structural mechanics of plates and shells. Proc. of the Karaganda Polytechnic Institute]. Karaganda, 1983, pp. 3-8. (In Russian).

2. Bolotin V. V. On the note of three-dimensional problems of elasticity theory for one-dimensional and two-dimensional. Problemy ustoichivosti v stroitelnoi mechanike. Trudy Vsesoyuznoi konferencii po problemam ustoichivosti v stroitelnoi mechanike [Stability problems in structural mechanics. Proc. of all-Union conference on stability problems in structural mechanics]. Ìoscow, Stroiizdat Publ., 1965, pp. 165-179. (In Russian).

3. Guz A. N. Ustoychivost' uprugikh tel pri konechnykh deformatsiyakh [Stability of elastic bodies in finite deformations]. Kiev, Naukova dumka Publ., 1973. 270 ð. (In Russian).

4. Àleksandrov A. Ya., [et al]. Raschet trehsloinyh panelei [Calculation of three-layer panels]. Ìoscow, Oborongiz Publ., 1960. 271 p. (In Russian).

5. Vlassov B. F. One case of bending of rectangular thick plate. Vestnik MGU. Mehanika, 1957, no. 2, pp. 25-34. (in Russian).

6. Piskunov V. G., Rasskazov À. Î. The development of the theory of laminated plates and shells. Prikladnaya mehanika, 2002, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 22-58. (In Russian).

7. Petrov V. V., Krivoshein I. V. The influence of support conditions on the contour on the stability of polymer membranes. Vestnik VRO RAASN, 2010, iss. 13, pp. 175-182. (In Russian).

8. Tazyukov B. F., Tazyukov F. H. Determination of buckling modes and critical local forces of rectangular plates. Vestnik Kazanskogo tehnologicheskogo universiteta, 2012, no. 9, pp. 185-187. (In Russian).

9. Melehin N. M. Comparison of the numerical solution of the problem of stability of plates with the test results. Stroitelnaya mehanika I raschet soorujenii, 2009, no. 6, pp. 12-15. (In Russian).

10. Ermolov S. B. The strength of sandwich panel with metal patches and polyfoam filler material. Diss. kand. tehn. nauk. Ìoscow, 1978. 201 p. (In Russian). - To Calculation of Rectangular Plates and Beams on Natural Oscillations
- UDC 624.07

**Radek F. GABBASOV**, e-mail: fofa@mail.ru

**Natalia B. UVAROVA**, e-mail: nbuvarova@yandex.ru

**Tuan Ann HOANG**, e-mail: hoangtuananhk30a1@gmail.com

National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. In the process of operation, buildings and structures are subjected to dynamic loads, therefore the determination of frequencies and mode shapes of the main tone of natural oscillations of orthotropic and isotropic rectangular plates is an actual task. The calculation of plates is conducted by a numerical method of successive approximations which has proven its efficiency, when calculating the structures on action of static and dynamic loads. The difference approximations of boundary conditions for rigidly fixed and free edges are presented. Examples of calculation of orthotropic and isotropic plates under different boundary conditions and any number of splits, which show that difference equations of the successive approximations method make it possible to obtain solutions of sufficient accuracy even for rare grid, are considered. The proposed method for determining frequencies of natural oscillations can be rationally used also for beams. The presented numerical methodology of calculation can be used in design organizations and in educational process.

**Key words**: differential equation, orthotropic and isotropic plate, natural oscillations frequencies, numerical solution, rigid fixing. - REFERENCES

1. Gabbasov R. F., Uvarova N. B., Alexandrovski M. V., Numerical solution of the problem on free bending vibrations of orthotropic plates. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 11, pp. 37-39. (In Russian).

2. Lekhnitskii S. T. Teoriya uprugosti anizotropnogo tela [Theory of elasticity of an anisotropic body]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1977. 416 p. (In Russian).

3. Gabbasov R. F., Gabbasov R. F., Filatov V. V. Chislennoe postroenie razryvnykh resheniy zadach stroitel'noy mekhaniki [Numerical construction of discontinuous solutions of problems of engineering mechanics]. Moscow, ACB Publ., 2008. 277 p. (In Russian).

4. Spravochnik po dinamike sooruzheniy [Guide on dynamics of structures]. Pod red. Korenev B. G., Rabinovich I. M. Moscow, Stroiizdat Publ., 1972. 512 p. (In Russian).

5. Solomon T. D. Primenenie metoda posledovatel'nykh approksimatsiy k raschetu ortotropnykh izgibaemykh plastin [Application of the method of successive approximations to the calculation of the bending of orthotropic plates]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2004. 160 p. (In Russian).

6. Sargsyan A. E. Dinamika i seysmostoykost' sooruzheniy atomnykh stantsiy [Dynamics and seismic stability of structures of nuclear power plants]. Sarov, RFNC-all-Russian research Institute EF Publ., 2013. 550 p. (In Russian).

7. Smirnov A. F., Aleksandrov A. V., Lastnikov J. B., Shaposhnikov N. N. Stroitel'naya mekhanika. Dinamika i ustoychivost' sooruzheniy [Building mechanics. Dynamics and stability of constructions]. Moscow, Stroiizdat Publ., 1984. 414 p. (In Russian).

8. Gabbasov R. F., Hoang Tuan Anh, Chikunov M. A. Generalized equations finite difference method in problems of calculation of thin flexible plates for dynamic loads. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 9, pp. 32-38. (In Russian).

9. Bate K. V., Wilson E. N. ×èñëåííûå ìåòîäû àíàëèçà è ìåòîä êîíå÷íûõ ýëåìåíòîâ [Numerical methods of analysis and finite element method]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1982. 448 p. (In Russian). - CRITICISM AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Review of the Book «Forecasting of Emergency Situations at Industrial Buildings under the Negative Influence of Petroleum Products on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures»
**Podgornov N. I.**