Published since 1923
DOI: 10.33622/0869-7019
Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) на платформе Web of Science

Contents of issue № 11 (november) 2015

  • Main Directions of Work on Improving the Quality of State and Non-State Expertise of Engineering Survey Results
  • UDC 624.
    Mikhail I. BOGDANOV, e-mail:
    IGIIS, Electrozavodskaya ul., 60, Moscow 107076, Russian Federation
  • Multifactor assessment of the causes progressive destruction of the New Hermitage buildings
  • UDC 624.131.1:624.1:556.3:556.31:725
    Regina E. DASHKO, e-mail:
    Valentina A. GORSKAYA, e-mail:
    National Mineral Resourses University "Mining", Vasil'evskiy ostrov, 21-ya liniya, 2, St. Petersburg 199106, Russian Federation
    Abstract. The engineering-geological, geotechnical and geo-environmental factors that determine the causes of progressive destruction of the New Hermitage buildings were analyzed. It is being operated for several centuries in complex, constantly deteriorating conditions in the contaminated underground space. The role of groundwater as component of underground space, reflecting the effect of different contamination sources, and forming the aggressiveness of water towards the foundation materials is reviewed. The evaluation of microbial activity in the zona of the foundation constructions, which determines the strength reduction of sand and clay deposits, the transition to a quick-sand state and biocorrosion of wooden structures and brick foundations was conducted. It is found that in the failure zones of the foundations and the presence of peat layers in the base section the most active formation of cracks in the supporting structures is observing. It is noted that injecting of clay-cement matrice to secure foundations has not produced the desired effect. The investigation results indicate the necessity of organizing comprehensive survey and monitoring, which in the future will allow to justify the use of materials whose stability can be guaranteed in the real situation and to prepare the project of reconstruction and restoration of the New Hermitage buildings.
    Key words: the New Hermitage buildings, progressive destruction, contamination, underground space, foundations, sand and clay soils, groundwater, microbiota, brickwork, biocorrosion.
    1. Fondovye materialy "Osnovnye polozhenija predproektnyh razrabotok s cel'ju obosnovanija rekonstrukcii i gidroizoljacii fundamentov zdanij Novogo Jermitazha" [The stock materials "Summary of pre-development in order to support reconstruction and waterproofing of the foundations of the New Hermitage buildings"]. St. Petersburg, 1994. 224 p. (In Russian).
    2. Arhitekturnye tetradi [Architectural notebook]. Vol. no. 1, Hermitage, St. Petersburg, 1994. 332 p. (In Russian).
    3. Dashko R. E., Vlasov D. Ju., Shidlovskaja A. V. Geotehnika i podzemnaja mikrobiota [Geotechnics and underground microbiota]. St. Petersburg, Institute "Georeconstruction" Publ., 2014. 280 p. (In Russian).
  • Engineering-Geological Analysis of the Peter and Paul Fortress Buildings and Structures Stability as a Basis for Comprehensive Monitoring
  • UDC 624.131.1:624.1:556.3:556.31:725
    Regina E. DASHKO, e-mail:
    Anna V. SHIDLOVSKAYA, e-mail:
    National Mineral Resourses University "Mining", Vasil'evskiy ostrov, 21-ya liniya, 2, St. Petersburg 199106, Russian Federation
    Abstract. The paper considers the current issues related to the engineering-geological features of constructions stability of the Peter and Paul Fortress buildings and structures (St. Petersburg). The purpose is to develop a comprehensive monitoring of interaction of structures with the underground space. Special attention, when analyzing this multi-component system "structure-underground space", is paid to the assessment of underground and aboveground bearing constructions of some objects of the Peter and Paul Fortress including historical aspects of its deformations. The construction elements of the Peter and Paul Cathedral foundations and the associated development of its long-term deformations are considered in details. The natural ground conditions of Zayachy Island, where the Fortress is located, are a subject of comprehensive review particularly with respect to engineering geological, hydro-geological and ecological conditions in the underground space. It is shown that the aggressive ground waters significantly influence on the stability and conditions of structures, the Peter and Paul Cathedral including. They contribute to the deterioration of conditions and physical-mechanical properties of soils in the base, the development of processes in the underground environment (quicksand, gas generation et. al) and the reduction in bearing capacity of soils. In particular, microbial induced corrosion or biocorrosion of the construction materials is analyzed. Results of the geo-radiolocation of some buildings of the Peter and Paul Fortress are presented. A structure of comprehensive monitoring of the Peter and Paul Cathedral is proposed.
    Key words: the Peter and Paul Fortress, the Peter and Paul Cathedral, engineering-geological analysis, water saturated clayey and sandy soils, ground water, contamination sources, foundations, bio-corrosion, comprehensive monitoring, deformations, settlements, long-term stability.
    1. Trofimov S. V. Petropavlovskiy sobor. Usypal'nitsa russkikh imperatorov [Peter and Paul Cathedral. The crypt of the Russian emperors]. Saint-Petersburg, Beloe i chernoe Publ., 1998. 160 p. (In Russian).
    2. Stepanov S. D. Buildings inside the fortress of civil structures. Kraevedcheskie zapiski. Saint-Petersburg, 1998, iss. 6. (In Russian).
    3. Dashko R. E., Aleksandrova O. Yu., Kotyukov P. V., Shidlovskaya A. V. Features of engineering-geological conditions of St. Petersburg. Razvitie gorodov i geotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 13, pp. 24-71. (In Russian).
    4. Shidlovskaya A. V. Engineering-geological and geoecological conditions assessment of the Cathedral and the organization of the system of object monitoring. Zapiski Gornogo instituta. SPGGI (TU), 2004, vol. 159, ch. 1, pp. 29-31. (In Russian).
    5. Vlasov D. Yu., Dashko R. E., Shidlovskaya A. V. Some data on Bioraznoobrazie building materials of the fortress. Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii po meditsinskoy mikologii [Materials of scientific-practical conference on medical Mycology]. Saint-Petersburg, 2003. 74 p. (In Russian).
  • Underestimating the Suffusion Danger when Constructing Planar Concrete Structures
  • UDC 624.131.542:551.44
    Ivan A. LAVRUSEVICH, e-mail:
    Victor P. KHOMENKO, e-mail:
    Andrey A. LAVRUSEVICH, e-mail:
    National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation
    Abstract. The cases of the emergence and development of suffusion cavities in the course of construction of industrial facilities on the example of the site of the Congress and Exhibition Center and the MPR display area of the military-patriotic culture and recreation park of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation "PATRIOT" are considered. Eleven places of observation and fixation of the suffusion removal of soil from under the plates of the exposure and helipads are marked. The dynamics of development of near the slopes mechanical suffusion on the slopes adjacent to the planar concrete structures caused by extreme flooding of sandy soils beneath them. According to the monitoring results, the formation of suffusion cavities of up to 3.8 m3 in sandy soil of the base of plates has been revealed. The article presents an example of liquidation of decompaction zones under the planar concrete structures. It is noted that the underestimation of suffusion danger leads to the rise in price of construction.
    Key words: suffusion danger, suffusion cavities, planar concrete structures, sandy soil, monitoring.
    1. Khomenko V. P. Zakonomernosti i prognoz suffozionnykh protsessov [Patterns and prediction of suffusion processes]. Moscow, GEOS Publ., 2003. 216 p. (In Russian).
    2. Lavrusevich А. А., Krasheninnikov V. S., Lavrusevich I. А. Loess pseudokarst and experience the strengthening of loess massifs and slopes with artificial planting of some plants (on the example of loess plateau in Gansu and Shensi, China). Inzhenernaya geologiya, 2012, no. 3, pp. 48-58. (In Russian).
    3. Lavrusevich А. А., KHomenko V. P. Engineering protection of territories affected by loessial pseudokarst. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no. 10, pp. 213-220. (In Russian).
    4. Lavrusevich А. А., KHomenko V. P., Lavrusevich I. А. Problems of building development of loess massifs affected by pseudokarst. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 11, pp. 11-13. (In Russian).
    5. Lavrusevich А. А., Bryukhan' F. F., Lavrusevich I. А., Khomenko V. P. Pseudokarst phenomena in quaternary and primary deposits in the south-east of the crimean peninsula. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 11, pp. 15-18. (In Russian).
  • Organic Mineral Additive for Strengthening Sandy Soils
  • UDC 691.223.7, 622.367.3
    Yuliya V. GAYDA, e-mail:
    Arkady M. AYZENSHTADT, e-mail:
    Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov, Severnaya Dvina naberezhnaya, 17, Arkhangelsk 163002, Russian Federation
    Victor S. MALKOV, e-mail:
    Mikhail A. FOMCHENKOV, e-mail:
    National Research Tomsk State University, prosp. Lenina, 36, Tomsk 634050, Russian Federation
    Abstract. A possibility of using an organic mineral additive for strengthening sandy soils is considered. To ensure a uniform polymerization all over the required layer thickness of the sandy soil, a mineral component is introduced in the additive. It is a cheap, affordable and environmentally friendly, saponite-containing waste derived from the pulp of the tailing dump of industrial ore dressing of the diamond deposit named after M.V. Lomonosov. The optimal content of glyoxal was determined by technique OWRK (Owens, Wendt, Rabel and Kaelble) based on the measurement of values of the contact angle of the sample surface with working solutions. The method allows to evaluate the physical and chemical interactions in the "sand-glyoxal" system. The optimal amount of glyoxal was 0.52% by weight of the sandy soil, saponite-containing waste - 17% by weight of the sandy soil that makes it possible to provide the maximum water saturation. The technology of introduction of the organic mineral additive in the sandy soil is described. The results of experimental studies of strength properties of the sandy soil, which was modified by organic mineral additive, are presented. It is shown that the optimal content of additive allows to increase the specific cohesion of sandy soil by 50 times.
    Key words: sandy soil, organic mineral additive, glyoxal, saponite-containing waste, strength characteristics.
    1. Vdovin E. A., Mavliev L. F., Stroganov V. F. How to improve the capacity of soils for construction of road pavements. Vestnik SibADI, 2013, no. 1(29), pp. 52-58. (In Russian).
    2. Lukina V. A., Lukin A. Yu. Temporary restrictions on movement of transport on highways of the Arkhangelsk Region. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 10, pp. 44-46. (In Russian).
    3. Zaid Hameed Majeed, Mohd Raihan Taha. A Review of Stabilization of Soils by using Nanomaterials. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2013, no. 7(2), pp. 576-581.
    4. Malakhova E. V., Ayzenshtadt A. M., Tutygin A. S., Korshunov A. A. Change of sandy soil properties as a result of modification by a finely dispersed additive. Inzhenernaya geologiya, 2013, no. 4, pp. 27-29. (In Russian).
    5. Gayda Y. V., Ayzenshtadt A. M. Determination of the surface activity of glyoxal. Stroitel'stvo - formirovanie sredy zhiznedeyatel'nosti: sbornik nauchnykh trudov XVIII mezhdunarodnoy mezhvuzovskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Construction - shaping the built environment: proceedings of the XVIII international interuniversity scientific and practical conference]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2015, pp. 806-809. (In Russian).
    6. Morozova M. V., Ayzenshtadt A. M., Tutygin A. S. Water absorption of saponite-containing tails of kimberlite ore dressing. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 11, pp. 29-31. (In Russian).
    7. Gayda Y. V., Ayzenshtadt A. M. The feature of raw materials for the organic-mineral additive. Materialy I vserossiyskoy konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem "Innovatsionnye materialy i tekhnologii dlya stroitel'stva v ekstremal'nykh klimaticheskikh usloviyakh" [Materials of the I all-Russian conference "Innovative materials and technologies for construction under extreme climatic conditions"]. Arkhangelsk, SAFU Publ., 2014, pp. 83-89. (In Russian).
    8. Tutygin A. S., Frolova M. A., Aksenov S. E. [et al.]. Prirodnye syr'evye materialy stroitel'nogo naznacheniya v Severo-Arkticheskom regione. Mineral'no-syr'evaya baza Arkhangel'skoy oblasti [The natural raw materials for construction application in the North Arctic region. Mineral resources base of the Arkhangelsk region]. Arkhangel'sk, SAFU Publ., 2011. 148 p. (In Russian).
    9. Voytovich E. V., Ayzenshtadt A. M. Design of compositions of a composite gypsum binder with the use of nano-structured silica component: thermodynamic aspect. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 5, pp. 16-20. (In Russian).
    10. Yakovets N. V., Krut'ko N. P., Opanasenko O. N. Determination of surface free energy of powdery resin-asphaltene substances by Owens-Wendt-Rabel- Kaelble method. Sviridovskie chteniya: sb. st. Minsk, BGU Publ., 2012, iss. 8, pp. 253-260. (In Russian).
  • Characteristic Changes in Electromagnetic Radiation Spectra During Monitoring of Stress-Strain State of Tunnel Lining
  • UDC 550.82:550.83.04
    Yuriy S. ISAEV, e-mail:
    Mikhail O. LEBEDEV, e-mail:
    Aleksandr D. BASOV, e-mail:
    Kirill V. ROMANEVICH, e-mail:
    Sergey A. SHLYAEV, e-mail:
    NIPII «Lenmetrogiprotrans», Bolshaya Moskovskaya ul., 2, St. Petersburg 191002, Russian Federation, e-mail:
    Abstract. Results of complex experimental works under the natural conditions on the development of the methodology of using the data of natural electromagnetic radiation for the control of the stress-strain state in the massive of rocks and structures of the tunnel lining are presented. Measurements of electromagnetic radiation by the device, in which a simultaneous three-component registration of signal of the natural electromagnetic radiation is used, have been made in the complex of monitoring operations. In the course of the analysis of the data of natural electromagnetic radiation and their comparison with geological conditions and deformation processes in the vicinity of the tunnel, the results of inclinometry and indications of string sensors of the automated monitoring of the stress-strain state of lining are used. Issues of further studies of interconnections of the natural electromagnetic radiation and the stress-strain state are considered.
    Key words: tunnel, landslide, deformation, inclinometry, directional survey of wells, observation well, natural electromagnetic radiation, spectrum analysis.
    1. Basov A. D., Romanevich K. V. Experimental study of stress-strain states of rock and supplements lining in the construction of a tunnel at the site of the North Caucasus rail road Sochi-Adler. Inzhenernaja geologija, 2013, no. 6, pp. 36-45. (In Russian).
    2. Vostrecov A. G., Krivecij A. V., Bizjaev A. A., Jakovickaja G. E. Changes of electromagnetic radiation signals in loading materials. Zavodskaja laboratorija. Diagnostika materialov, 2011, no. 4, vol. 77, pp. 50-53. (In Russian).
    3. Chernikova T. M., Ivanov V. V., Mihajlova E. A. Statistics accumulation and line spectra of electromagnetic radiation of microcracks in the composite materials. Polzunovskij vestnik, 2011, no. 3/1, pp. 66-70. (In Russian).
    4. Voznesenskij A. S., Tamarin D. V., Nabatov N. N., Konovalov E. N. Electromagnetic radiation and acousticcal issue in the cast when it is deformed. Gornyj informacionno-analiticheskij bjulleten', 2005, no. 5, pp. 83-86. (In Russian).
    5. Voznesenskij A. C., Nabatov V. V. Evaluation of cracking in the array with gypsum-containing rocks by detecting electromagnetic radiation. Fiziko-tehnicheskie problemy razrabotki poleznyh iskopaemyh, 2003, no. 3, pp. 3-12. (In Russian).
    6. Frid V., Bahat D., Goldbaum J., Rabinovich A. Experimental and theoretical investigations of Electromagnetic radiation induced by rock fracture. Israel Jornal of Earth Sciences, 2000, no. 49, pp. 9-19.
    7. Basov A. D., Romanevich K. V., Shljaev S. A. Electromagnetic radiation in the areas of expansion of earthquake precursors. Fizicheskie osnovy prognozirovanija razrushenija gornyh porod: tezisy dokladov IX Mezhdunarodnoj shkoly-seminara [Physical basis of forecasting rock failure: abstracts of the IX International school-seminar], Irkutsk, 2-6 sept. 2013. Irkutsk, IZK SO RAN Publ., 2013. Pp. 113-116. (In Russian).
  • Numerical Solution of the Problem of Natural Oscillations of Bending Orthotropic Plates
  • UDC 624.072
    Radek F. GABBASOV
    Natalia B. UVAROVA, e-mail:
    Maxim V. ALEKSANDROVSKY, e-mail:
    National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation
    Abstract. An efficient method for determination of frequencies and forms of own oscillations of orthotropic plates is proposed. The well-known differential equation of forms and frequencies of free (own) vibrations of orthotropic plates in partial derived numbers of the fourth-order is represented as a second order differential equation regarding the second partial derivatives of deflections. The resulting differential equation is approximated by a difference equation of the method of successive approximations (MSA). The relationship between the function of deflections and the second partial derivatives of this function is expressed by one-dimensional difference equations of MSA with zero values of breaks. The algebraic equations system is resolved using the iterative method. The stated calculation method is illustrated by the example of a square plate with hinged support along the contour. It is shown that difference equations of MSA make it possible to obtain solutions of a sufficient accuracy even at the coarse grid. The developed numerical methodology envisages any combination of edge conditions and makes it possible to find supreme frequencies.
    Key words: orthotropic plate, frequencies of own oscillations, method of successive approximations, differential equation, hinged support.
    1. Lekhnitsky S. G. Teoriya uprugosti anizotropnogo tela [Theory of elasticity of anisotropic body]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1977. 416 p. (In Russian).
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    6. Gabbassov R. F., Anh H. T., Shikunov M. A. Generalized equations of finite difference method in the problems of calculation of thin bending plates for dynamic loads. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 9, pp. 32-38. (In Russian).
    7. Ushakov A. U., Vanyushenkov M. G. Bending a rectangular plate under the action of longitudinal compressive forces. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 10, pp. 72-73. (In Russian).
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  • Equivalence of Impacts for an Incompressible Material
  • UDC 539.3
    Elifkhan K. AGAKHANOV, e-mail:
    Dagestan State Technical University, Imam Shamil prosp., 70, Dagestan, Makhachkala 367015, Russian Federation
    Murad K. AGAKHANOV, e-mail:
    National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation
    Abstract. Nowadays, one of the most important directions in mechanics of deformable rigid bodies is the development of approaches which allow to combine tremendous computing potentialities of modern supercomputers with the experimental methods of study of materials and structures. The engineering practice began to use the incompressible materials for the production of structural elements and structures. The evaluation of their strength characteristics requires a thorough study of the stress-strain state caused by various loads and effects. In the process of solution of problems in the mechanics of deformable rigid bodies, the conditions of equivalence of effects are effectively used. For a rigid body from an incompressible material, the equivalence conditions are determined for both the stresses and the translocations with using the solving system of equations in the mechanics of deformable rigid bodies under the effects of forced general deformations as well as of volume and surface forces. It is shown that the obtained equivalence conditions include the known solutions as their particular cases. The efficiency of analytic solution of a 3D problem considering a rotating disk from an incompressible material obtained through the method of equivalence of effects is shown.
    Key words: incompressible material, equivalence of effects, rotating disk, effective analytic solution.
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    2. Agakhanov G. E. About the mathematical modeling of the effect of the porous pressure on the soil. Vestnik Dagestanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2015, no. 1, pp. 8-16. (In Russian).
    3. Agakhanov E. K., Agakhanov M. K. About the simulation of the effect of volume forces in an elastic creep body. Izvestiya Vuzov. Severo-Kavkazskiy region. Tekhnicheskie nauki. 2005, no. 1, pp. 25-26. (In Russian).
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    5. Agakhanov G. E. Mathematical simulation of moisture stresses in the soil half-space. Internet-zhurnal "Naukovedenie", 2015, vol. 7, no. 3. Available at: DOI: 10.15862/12TVN315. (accessed 27.08.2015).
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    8. Akaev A. I., Paizulaev M. M. A generalized plane problem of the elasticity theory as applied to the steel-concrete beams. Nauchnoe obozrenie, 2015, no. 5, pp. 112-115. (In Russian).
    9. Akaev A. I., Paizulaev M. M. The strength analysis for the first group of limiting states of bent elements reinforced by steel casings. Nauchnoe obozrenie, 2015, no. 9, pp. 87-90. (In Russian).
    10. Magomedov M. G., Paizulaev M. M. The use of the finite elements method for a theoretical simulation of the behavior of plane concrete systems. Nauchnoe obozrenie, 2015, no. 1, pp. 77-81. (In Russian).
    11. Agakhanov G. E. About the mathematical simulation of physical effects in soils. Nauchnoe obozrenie, 2014, no. 12, pp. 733-736. (In Russian).
    12. Agakhanov E. K. About the development of complex methods of solutions to the problems in mechanics of deformable rigid bodies. Vestnik Dagestanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 2, pp. 39-45. (In Russian).
  • Symbiotic Models of Sustainable Development of Architectural and Historical Environment of the Samara Volga Region
  • UDC 72.01 /03 (470.43)
    Tatyana V. VAVILONSKAYA, e-mail:
    Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, ul. Molodogvardeyskaya, 194, Samara 443001, Russian Federation
    Abstract. A new scientific direction - symbiotic regeneration of architectural and historical environment is considered, the concept, background and nature of the symbiotic approach to the development of architectural and historical environment are revealed. The architectural and historical environment is a continuous, multi-level, developing figurative semantic space, where two differently directed vectors act and materialize: а preservation vector and а renovation vector. On the example of the Samara Volga Region, the study has been conducted for three levels: a historic region, historic city, and historic neighborhood. At the regional level, a symbiotic network model of development, which has non-linear character and has the advantages of two well-known models - "historic and cultural frame" and "tourist-recreation cluster", is offered. At the city level, a symbiotic matrix model of development has been developed; according to this model reconstruction modes are differentially determined for each of historic-typological levels by the matrix of properties reflecting the different aspects of conservation and renewal. At the city block level a symbiotic modular model of development where the module and character of transforming processes are stipulated by a number of properties reflecting different aspects of conservation and renewal, has been developed. Models can be used in the strategic and operative security documentation of a new type that ensures the control over the processes of architectural and historical environment development.
    Key words: models of sustainable development, symbiotic regeneration, architectural and historical environment, symbiotic network model, symbiotic matrix model, symbiotic modular model.
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    14. Porter M. Konkurentnaya strategiya: metodika analiza otrasley i konkurentov. [Competitive strategy: a methodology for analyzing Industries and competitors]. Moscow, Alpina Biznes Buks Publ., 2005. 454 p. (In Russian).
    15. Kovalchenko I. D. Metodyi istoricheskogo issledovaniya [The methods of historical research]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2003. 486 p. (In Russian).
    16. Aydarova G. N. Challenges and methodology of preservation of historical and cultural heritage of Kazan. Izvestiya KGASU, 2012, no. 2, pp. 9-15. (In Russian).
  • Research on Energy Efficiency of Multi-Storey Residential Buildings in China
  • UDC 69.032:69.036
    Ruixin LI, e-mail:
    Zhengzhou University, Road Kexuedadao, 100, Zhengzhou 450001, P. R. China
    Olga L. BANTSEROVA, e-mail:
    National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation
    Abstract. The factors affecting the energy efficiency of multi-storey residential buildings in China are considered. The study is aimed at the search for an optimal space-planning arrangement with due regard for the compactness of the building shape as it is established that the shape of the building has a direct influence on its thermo-technical characteristics. However, the limitations of shape coefficient of building in the codes don't provide architects with any practical help for controlling architectural design sizes. A comparative analysis of compactness requirements for buildings in Russia and China is presented. Practical recommendations for choosing the shape of the building are prepared. On the basis of mathematical calculation it is established the most rational form of the building from the point of view of heat losses is a building with a low planning coefficient. The relationship between factors influencing both on the compactness of the building and its energy efficiency is revealed. A set of mathematical formulas that can help architects and builders to find out the best solution to energy conservation when designing architectural spaces is summarized. On the basis of the study results, multi-storey, single-section residential buildings of a tower type are offered for development of new residential neighbourhoods of the Central districts of China as the most energy efficient.
    Key words: compactness of building, energy efficiency, planning coefficient, Chinese norms, mathematical analysis, multi-storey residential buildings.
    1. Li Ruixin, Bantserova O. L. The influence of traditional culture on dwelling houses in middle of China. Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 5, рр. 276-281. (In Russian).
    2. Li Ruixin, Bantserova O. L. The advantages of the multi-storey apartment building in the microdistricts of Zhengzhou city (PRC). Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 8, рр. 69-76. (In Russian).
    3. Li Ruixin, Bantserova O. L. The advantages of the multi-storey apartment building in the microdistricts of Zhengzhou city. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no.12, pp. 7-15. (In Russian).
    4. Gindoyan A. G., Avdeev K. V. About compactness of buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2009, no. 8, pp. 26-27. (In Russian).
    5. Zhao Peng, Hu Weijun. Study on building corresponding area coefficient instead of building shape coefficient. Sichuan Building Science, 2012, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 297-300. (In Chinese).
    6. Kononova M. S. Study on the influence of some geometrical parameters of buildings on their heating indicators. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 9, pp. 60-64. (In Russian).
    7. Fedyuk R. S., Mochalov A. V., Simonov V. A. The trends in the development of standards for thermal protection of buildings in Russia. Vestnik inzhenernyy shkoly DVFU, 2012, no. 2 (11), pp. 39-44. (In Russian).
    8. Skorik T. A., Glazunova E. K. Energy saving and modern requirements for thermal protection of building. Trudy konferentsii "Transport-2014" [Proc. of the conference "Transport 2014"]. 2014, pp. 321-322. (In Russian).
    9. Belyaev V. S., Granik Yu. G., Matrosov Yu. A. Energoeffektivnost' i teplozashchita zdaniy [The energy efficiency of buildings and insulation]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2012, 396 p. (In Russian).
    10. Mindzaeva M. R., Gorgorova Yu. V. Comparative analysis of foreign standards of sustainable construction and their influence on the formation of Russian eco standards. Inzhenernyy Vestnik Dona, 2013, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 264. (In Russian).
    11. Liu Xianping, Ding Lixing. Analysis on the effect of building shape coefficient for energy saving. Journal of Hunan University of Science & Technology (Natural Science Edition). 2006, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 25-28. (In Chinese).
    12. Savin V. K., Savina N. V. Power efficiency and form-formation of building. Vestnik MGSU. 2011, no. 3-1, pp. 152-157. (In Russian).
    13. Kornienko S. V. The accounting of the form at the assessment of the thermal performance of the envelopes. Stroitel'stvo unikal'nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy, 2013, no. 5 (10), pp. 20-27. (In Russian).
    14. Temukuev B. B., Temukuev T. B. The influence coefficient of compactness on the economic and operational performance of buildings. Trudy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii. Energoobespechenie i energosberezhenie v sel'skom khozyaystve [Proc. of international scientific-technical conference. Energy supply and conservation in agriculture]. 2006, vol. 1, pp. 174-178. (In Russian).
    15. Fu Xiangzhao. Building energy-saving technology in hot summer and cold winter area. Beijing, China Architecture & Building Press, 2005, 366 p. (In Chinese).
    16. Fu Heng, Gong Yanfeng, Xu Jinfeng, Jin Sike. Influence of building shape coefficient on energy consumption of residential building in hot summer and cold winter areas. New building materials, 2010, 37(1), pp. 47-50. (In Chinese).
    17. Yurchenko E. L., Koval' E. A. Study on energy efficiency of low rise buildings based on their architectural and structural systems. Vestnik Dnepropetrovskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii stroitel'stva i arkhitektury, 2013, no. 1-2, pp. 25-31. (In Russian).
    18. Beregovoi A. M. The energy saving by energy active construction. Report and information of International scientific and technical conference, November 10-17. Casablanca, Marocco, 2003, pp. 67-68. (In English).
    19. Savin V. K., Savina N. V. Architecture and energy efficiency of buildings. Gradostroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 1 (23), pp. 82-84. (In Russian).
    20. Liu Peng. Manual of еnergy еfficiency in buildings of China. Building Technology. 2009, 330 p. (In Chinese).
  • Technical Regulations as a Source of Objective Requirements for Materials Applied
  • Dmitry B. EREMENKO, e-mail:
    Truby HOBAS, Vasil'evskiy ostrov, 19-ya liniya, 34/1"B", of. 226, St. Petersburg 199178, Russian Federation
    Abstract. Actual problems of the formation of normative base in construction on the example of pipelines for water supply and canalization are considered. Requirements of technical regulations for safety of buildings and structures are accepted as a base. Taking into account the necessity to fulfill the calculated substantiation for the limit state, general obligatory requirements for the content of standards (technical conditions) of materials applied and for plotting the calculation scheme for simulation of the combination of design loads and operation regimes, which doesn't depend on the choice of material, are formulated. Examples of the violation or distortion of described general requirements in the acting national standards for materials applied, the absence of an objective system approach during the process of assessment and selection of technical solutions are presented. It is proposed to use the comparable estimated reserve of strength for a set time of service life as an obligatory criterion for selecting the technical solution. The general structural diagram simulating design loads is selected as an instrument for objective comparison. The assessment of reasons for appearance of the problem of excessive formalization of technical regulation processes and the actuality of its solution for the development of the building complex and economy as a whole is made.
    Key words: safety ensuring, reliability and suitability of building materials, standardization, calculation for limit states, optimization.
  • Study of Parameters of Optimal Organizational-Technological Solutions to Commissioning of Reconstructed Railway Stations
  • UDC 69.003:65
    Alexander V. KABANOV, e-mail:
    Sergei M. TIKHOMIROV
    Petersburg State Transport University, Moskowsky prosp., 9, St. Petersburg 190031, Russian Federation
    Abstract. The actual issues of improving the efficiency of organizational and technological solutions when using the rational scheme of interim acceptance and interim payments in the course of execution of reorganization and reconstruction of railway stations by contractors are considered. The authors analyze the organization of work for the reconstruction of a number of railway stations. The implementation of this task is the regulation of components and systems of works within certain time intervals. A rational area of the complex use of indicators of works performance, continuity and rhythm of production is defined. The use of interval organizational-technological and technical-economic indicators makes it possible to determine the nature of their relationship which, in turn, gives the opportunity to identify the rational zone of their application and to form a rational variant of works organization using the method of full enumeration of options variety for the purpose of institutional control over railway construction.
    Key words: reconstruction of railway stations, efficiency of organizational and technological solutions, nodal method of construction organization in the course of reconstruction and renovation of railway stations.
    1. Kabanov A. V. Improving organizational and technological preparation of general contractor of transportation construction. Vestnik RGUPS, 2007, no. 3, pp. 72-76. (In Russian).
    2. Ginzburg A. V., Zhavnerov P. B. Improving organizational and technological reliability construction due to structural measures. Vestnik MGSU, 2013, no. 3, pp. 196-200. (In Russian).
    3. Kabanov A. V. Nodal method for organizing the construction of major transport proects: reconstruction of the railway station. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 82-85. (In Russian).
    4. Oleinik P. P., Brodsky V. I. System standardization organization of building production. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no. 6, pp. 119-125. (In Russian).
    5. Ginzburg A. V., Zhavnerov P. B. The impact of measures to improve organizational and technical reliability of the functioning of the construction company and construction planning. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Povolzh'ya, 2014, no. 3, pp. 94-96. (In Russian).
    6. Olejnik P. P. Organizacija stroitel'nogo proizvodstva [Organization of construction production]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010. 576 p. (In Russian).
    7. Olejnik P. P., Brodskij V. I. Methods for determining the duration of construction of objects. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 12, pp. 30-32. (In Russian).
  • Study of Changes in Labor Costs of Installation of High-Speed Volumetric Modular Construction
  • UDC 624.05
    Sergey A. SYCHEV, e-mail:
    Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2-ya Krasnoarmeyskaya ul., 4, St. Petersburg 190005, Russian Federation
    Abstract. Designs of three-dimensional modules of various types and modifications produced by industrial methods, including "sandwich" or combined structures that is dictated by the variability of construction projects, are considered. The formation of an installation method is a search for rational solutions through the sequential analysis of components of organizational and technological structures. For the purpose to analyze the normative labor consumption of the installation of volumetric modules, when hydraulic manipulator-robots are used, calculations for the most characteristic methods for installation mechanization have been made. The results obtained make it possible to generally evaluate the suitability of those or other mechanisms for the operation with volumetric modules under the concrete conditions of construction. In each specific case, data and calculations presented make it possible to use the rational variant with due regard for characteristics of structural features of a residential house, contracting company, economic factors and other indicators. After analyzing installation and construction processes, it is concluded that the calculation flows at a pre-assembly works under the condition of continuous operation of the manipulator during the working shift and the intensity of delivery of volumetric modules as well as with due regard for the logistics under concrete conditions of the construction site is additionally required.
    Key words: quickly erected structures, transformable structures, high-speed construction, prefabricated blocks, modular buildings.
    1. Sychev S. A. System analysis high speed of construction in Russia and abroad. Perspektivy nauki, 2015, no. 9(72), pp. 126-131. (In Russian).
    2. Sychev S. A., Badin G. M. Methods of prediction of advanced equipment and technology high-speed mounting of modular construction. Montazhnye i special'nye raboty v stroitel'stve, 2015, no. 10, pp. 22-25. (In Russian).
    3. Sychev S. A., Pavlova N. A. Methods to accelerate the pace of construction. Sbornik materialov VI Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii: Sovremennye kontseptsii nauchnykh issledovaniy [The collection of materials of VI International scientific-practical conference: Modern concepts of scientific research]. Moscow, 26-27 sent. 2014. Pp. 125-127. (In Russian).
    4. Verstov V. V., Bad'in G. M. Features of the design and construction of buildings and structures in Saint Petersburg. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov, 2010, no. 1(22), pp. 96-105. (In Russian).
    5. Sychev S. A. Tekhnologiya uskorennogo montazha mansard iz unifitsirovannykh sendvich-paneley [Technology accelerated the installation of attics from unified sandwich panels]. Saint Petersburg, SpbGPU Publ., 2010. 179 p. (In Russian).
    6. Sychev S. A. Accelerated assembly of attics from unified sandwich panels. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2008, no. 6, pp. 6-9. (In Russian).
    7. Anderson M., Anderson P. Prefab prototypes: Site-specific design for offsite construction [Каркасные прототипы: сайт-специфический дизайн для модульного строительства]. Princeton Architectural Press, 2007. 123 p.
    8. Rounce G. Quality, waste and cost considerations in architectural building design management [Качество, отходы и затраты в архитектурно-строительном проектировании]. International Journal of Project Management, 1998, no. 16(2), pp. 123-127.
    9. Wang Y., Huang Z., Heng L. Cost-effectiveness assessment of insulated exterior wall of residential buildings in cold climate [Оценка экономической эффективности изолированных наружных стен жилых домов в холодном климате]. International Journal of Project Management, 2007, no. 25(2), pp. 143-149.
    10. Head P. R. Construction materials and technology: A Look at the future [Строительные материалы и технологии: взгляд в будущее]. Proceedings of the ICE - Civil Engineering, 2001, no. 144(3), pp. 113-118.
    11. Swamy R. N. Holistic design: key to sustainability in concrete construction [Целостный дизайн: ключ к устойчивости в монолитном строительстве]. Proceedings of the ICE - Structures and Buildings, 2001, no. 146(4), pp. 371-379.
    12. Lawson R. M., Richards J . Modular design for high-rise buildings [Модульные конструкции для высотных зданий]. Proceedings of the ICE - Structures and Buildings, 2010, no. 163(3), pp. 151-164.
    13. Nadim W., Goulding J. S. Offsite production in the UK: The Way forward? A UK construction industry perspective construction [Внеплощадочные производства в Великобритании: путь вперед? Британская перспектива строительной отрасли]. Management, 2010, 10(2), pp. 181-202.
    14. Day A. When modern buildings are built offsite [Когда современные здания строятся вне площадок]. Building engineer, 2011, no. 86(6), pp.18-19.
    15. Allen E., Iano J. Fundamentals of building construction: Materials and methods [Основы строительных конструкций: материалы и методы]. J. Wiley & Sons, 2004. 28 p.
    16. Fudge J., Brown S. Prefabricated modular concrete construction [Сборные модульные бетонные конструкции]. Building engineer, 2011, no. 86(6), pp. 20-21.
    17. Staib G, Dцrrhцfer A., Rosenthal M. Components and systems: Modular construction: Design, structure, new technologies [Компоненты и системы: модульная конструкция: Конструкция, структура, новые технологии]. Mьnchen, Institut fьr internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, 2008. 34 p.
    18. Knaack U., Chung-Klatte Sh., Hasselbach R. Prefabricated systems: Principles of construction [Сборные системы: принципы построения]. De Gruyter, 2012. 67 p.
  • Effect of Parameters of Steel Rod Structures on the Complexity of Manufacturing
  • UDC 691.714:693.814.057
    Alexey N. ULSHIN, e-mail:
    Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2-nd Krasnoarmeiskaya ul. 4, St. Petersburg 190005, Russian Federation
    Abstract. Аs a result of the analysis of existing ways of optimization of steel rod structures, the author offers a new way for improving the complex technological effectiveness during the production and installation of these structures. This way is realized in the organization, which produces and installs such steel structures. It demands an exact assessment of the actual labor input of production and installation with due regard for existing various manufacturing and installation techniques. The equation of regression of labor input of production of standard steel rod structures has been derived on the basis of statistical processing of selections for each type of structures with various parameters. This equation of regression makes it possible to obtain dependences between labor input and parameters of structures of various types and to reveal the most significant of them. In addition, with the help of the equation of regression it is possible to reveal the ways for optimizing these parameters and improving the technology of steel rod structure manufacturing.
    Key words: labor input of steel structures production, effect of parameters of structure on labor input of production, equation of regression of labor input of production, factorial analysis, the equation of regression of labor input of production.
    1. Shipovskih I. Yu., Ivanchenko I. G. Research of the market of a construction metalwork. Stroyprofil, 2005, no. 2-05, pp. 3-5. (In Russian).
    2. Pfeiffer E., Kern A. Modern production of heavy plates for construction applications - controlling production processes and quality. Steel Construction, 2014, vol. 7(no. 2), pp.147-150.
    3. Bedair O. Modern steel design and construction in Canada's oil sands industry. Steel Construction, 2014, vol. 6 (no. 1), pp. 32-35.
    4. Kuznetsov I. L., Salahutdinov M. A., Gimranov L. R. New constructive solutions of steel frameworks of easy multiflying buildings. Izvestiya KGASU, 2011, no. 1(15), pp. 88-92. (In Russian).
    5. Salahutdinov M. A., Kuznetsov I. L. Optimization of parameters of the new constructive solution of a steel framework of the multiflying building. Izvestiya KGASU, 2012, no. 2 (20), pp. 94-98. (In Russian).
    6. Alekseytsev A. V. Evolutionary optimization of steel farms taking into account nodal connections of cores. Inzhenerno-stroitelnyiy zhurnal, 2013, no. 5, pp. 28-37. (In Russian).
    7. Isaev A. V., Kuznetsov I. L. Alternativeness of criteria of an optimality at synthesis of the rational constructive decision on the example of rafter farms. Izvestiya KGASU, 2009, no. 1(11), pp. 92-98. (In Russian).
    8. Shalennyi V. T., Papirnykh R. B. Improrement of adaptalility of design decisions of monolithic and cast-in-place and precast buildings and structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 2, pp. 19-21. (In Russian).
    9. Internet-katalog metalloobrabatyivayuschego oborudovaniya "Dyukon" [Online catalog of the metalworking equipment "Dyukon"]. Available at: (accessed 15.11.2014). (In Russian).
    10. Internet-katalog metalloobrabatyivayuschego oborudovaniya "Abamet" [Online catalog of the metalworking equipment "Abamet"] Available at: (accessed 15.11.2014). (In Russian).
    11. Internet-katalog metalloobrabatyivayuschego oborudovaniya "Kraftunion" [Online catalog of the metalworking equipment "Kraftunion"]. Available at: (accessed 15.11.2014). (In Russian).
    12. Bureeva N. N. Mnogomernyiy statisticheskiy analiz s ispolzovaniem PK "STATISTICA" [ The multidimensional statistical analysis with use of the STATISTICA personal computer]. Nizhniy Novgorod, NTs Informatsionnotelekommunikatsionnyie sistemyi Publ., 2007. 112-113 p. (In Russian).
  • Impact of Surrounding Development on Daylight Levels in Premises of Embedded Buildings with Natural Upper Lighting Systems
  • UDC 628.9:711.4
    Sergey V. STETSKY, e-mail:
    Kira O. LARIONOVA, е-mail:
    National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation
    Abstract. The article is devoted to problems of the influence of surrounding development, due to its shadowing or light-reflecting properties, on the value of the daylight factor for embedded buildings with the natural upper lighting system. The degree of this influence has been determined at different geometric and lighting characteristics of these objects. The suggestions on calculating the daylight factor at upper illumination of premises are based on the hypothesis about the possible use of some points of its calculation at the side-natural illumination. This is highly actual for the moment, since with the constantly increased volumes of underground, sub-ground and low-rise buildings under restrained urban conditions, the real mean to provide a required natural lighting in them is a system of natural upper lighting. But, under this system of natural lighting, the lighting impact of a surrounding development is not taken into account in building norms, and this makes the quality design of the internal lighting environment of the buildings rather problematic. The possibility to use this hypothesis has been confirmed by a number of field experiments. It is noted that these studies, carried out for a cloudy sky and diffusion lighting, in future, can be continued for conditions of a clear sky and solar lighting.
    Key words: opposing buildings, lighting impact of surrounding development, natural upper lighting system, embedded buildings, daylight factor.
    1. Solov'ev A. K. Evaluation of light-medium industrial premises in clear-sky conditions. Svetotekhnika, 1987, no. 7, pp. 12-14. (In Russian).
    2. Solov'ev A. K. Hollow tubular light conductors and their application for natural lighting of buildings. Svetotekhnika, 2011, no. 5, pp. 53-55. (In Russian).
    3. Solov'ev A. K. Design of natural lighting of buildings with use of spatial characteristics of light media. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitel'stvo, 2009, no. 5, pp. 20-25. (In Russian).
    4. Solov'ev A. K. The distribution of brightness across the sky, and his account when designing natural illumination of buildings. Svetotekhnika, 2008, no. 6, pp. 18-22. (In Russian).
    5. Zemtsov V. A. Issues of design and analysis of natural lighting of premises through shaft-type skylights. Svetotekhnika, 1990, no. 10, pp. 25-36. (In Russian).
    6. Zemtsov V. A. Estestvennoe osveshchenie pomeshcheniy cherez zenitnye fonari shakhtnogo tipa [Natural ligting of interiors through roof lights of a vine-type. Issledovanie po stroitel'noi svetotehnike]. Sb. nauch. tr. Moscow, NIISF Publ., 1981, pp. 28-31. (In Russian).
    7. Brotash L., Uilson M. A calculation of natural lightings factors. Svetotekhnika, 2008, no. 3, pp. 44-47. (In Russian).
    8. Egorchenkov V. A. A luminance of a ground surfaces determination in the calculation of natural lighting of buildings. Svetotekhnika, 2008, no. 3, pp. 56-57. (In Russian).
    9. Slukin V. M., Simakova E. S. Problems of natyral illumination of premises in the condensed city building. Akademicheskii vestnik UralNIIproekt RAASN, 2010, no. 2, pp. 56-60. (In Russian).
    10. Tregenza P. R. The daylight factor and actual illuminance ratios. Lighting Research and Technology, 1980, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 64-68.
    11. Brotas L., Wilson M. Daylight in Urban Canyons: Planning in Europe. PLEA2006. The 23rd conference on passive and low energy architecture. Geneva, Switzerland, 6-8 Sept. 2006, proc. II, pp. 207-212.
    12. Stetskiy S. V., Larionova K. O. Тo a problem of natural light design in premices with roof natural lighting system with the consideration of lighting affects of the surrounding development. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 12, pp. 20-30. (In Russian).
  • Management System of Innovative Potential of a Housing and Construction Cluster
  • UDC 658:643(1-3)
    Irina A. KUZOVLEVA, e-mail:
    Vera V. PROKOPENKOVA, e-mail:
    Bryansk State University of Engineering and Technology, Stanke Dimitrov prosp., 3, Bryansk 241037, Russian Federation
    Abstract. Results of the economic activity of business entities are largely determined by the ability of effective collaboration within the cluster structure enabling to obtain a synergistic effect from joint activity due to the innovative capacity building. Therefore, the problem in question is very relevant for the housing sector. The purpose of the paper is to develop a structural model of the management system of innovative capacity of the housing and construction cluster, the main goal of which is to provide favorable organizational and economic conditions for the implementation of the innovation activity of the cluster participants in order to strengthen strategically advantageous market positions. A method of system dynamics enabling identification of cause-effect relations between the researched objects of the developed model by logical reasoning is applied. The development of an effective management system will improve the sustainability of the sector to the adverse effects of external and internal factors through the creation of new resource of the development of economic system on the basis of advanced technologies application. Accelerating the adaptation of the participants of the cluster structure for the introduction of innovation technologies into the production and management process will ensure the emergence of the synergistic effect that manifests itself not only at the enterprise level, but also at the level of sectoral and regional development. Joining of research and innovation-active organizations to the cluster will enable to accumulate resources for the creation and implementation of innovations into the construction industry that will increase the competitive advantages of all the participants of the investment and construction process.
    Key words: investment and construction complex, housing and construction cluster, synergistic effect, innovative potential, management system.
    1. Larionov A. N., Larionova Y. V. The role and the place of the conceptual and categorical device in implementation of the national project "Available and comfortable housing - to citizens of Russia". Vestnik Instituta ekonomiki RAN, 2014, no. 1, pp. 44-51. (In Russian).
    2. Mishlanova M. Y. Conceptualization of the threading model of the system "Construction - environment life and business". Fundamental'nye issledovaniya, 2014, no. 8-3, pp. 688-692. (In Russian).
    3. Pesaran H., Cesa-Bianchi A., Rebucci A. Uncertainty and economic activity: a global perspective. University of Cambridge, Cambridge Working Papers in Economics, 2014, pp. 1-65.
    4. Kuzovleva I. A., Prokopenkova V. V. Justification for the formation of cluster structure in the field of housing construction in terms of innovative development of the region. Innovatcii 2014. Organizatcionno-ekonomicheskie mekhanizmy podderzhki malogo i srednego biznesa na sovremennom etape: problemy i perspektivy. Materialy mezhdunarodnogo molodezhnogo foruma [Innovations 2014. Organizational-economic mechanisms of supporting small and medium-sized businesses at the present stage: problems and prospects. Proceedings of the International Youth Forum held on April 24-25, 2014]. Bryansk, 2014, pp. 457-462. (In Russian).
    5. Grabovyi P. G., Gusakova E. A., Krygina A. M. Prospects for the development of organization of innovation and technological housing construction at the regional level. Nedvizhimost': ekonomika, upravlenie, 2013, no. 2, pp. 14-19. (In Russian).
    6. Seyed Reza Mousavi Zadeh, Mohammad Reza Pahlavan Kondor Sharifi, Azam Bigdeli, Fariba Bigdeli. Identification and rank of the factors affecting on customer loyalty in companies distributing goods (FMCG). Academic Journal of Research in Economics & Management, 2014, vol. 2, pp. 1-10.
    7. Lukmanova I. G., Nezhnikova E. V. Comprehensive assessment of quality management systems in construction. Fundamental'nye issledovaniya, 2013, no. 10-8, pp. 1791-1795. (In Russian).
    8. Prokopenkova V. V. Innovative potential as a criterion of stimulation of investment activity of the homebuilder cluster. Global Science and Innovation: Materials of the IInd International Scientific Conference, 2014, Chicago - USA, vol. I, pp. 76-81.
    9. Lukmanova I. G., Barkanov A. S. Management of an enterprise on the basis of strategy maps. Nedvizhimost': ekonomika, upravlenie, 2008, no. 1, pp. 24-26. (In Russian).