## Contents of issue ¹ 10 (october) 2015 |

- INFORMATION
- Bryansk State Engineering Technological University - 85 years
**Valery A. EGORUSHKIN**, e-mail: mail@bgita.ru

Bryansk State Engineering Technological University, prospect Stanke Dimitrov, 3, Bryansk 241037, Russian Federation- BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
- Optimization of Spatial Steel Frames with Increased Level of Responsibility
- UDC 624.072.33:624.046.2

**Igor N. SERPIK**, e-mail: inserpik@gmail.com

**Anatoliy V. ALEKSEYTSEV**, e-mail: aalexw@mail.ru

Bryansk State Engineering Technological University, prospect Stanke Dimitrov, 3, Bryansk 241037, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. An algorithm of optimal design of spatial steel frames of buildings and structures is proposed with due regard for ensuring the survivability of a bearing system under possible beyond-design impacts, which lead to local destructions. The objective is to minimize the cost of the frame bar material with due regard for limitations in strength, rigidity and stability under normal service conditions of the facility, as well as to avoid major changes in the geometry of the structure in the event of an instantaneous occurrence of certain damages of bars. The technique is elaborated for the application to welded I-shaped cross-sections. Options of bar cross-sections are regarded as design parameters. The search algorithm is based on evolutionary modeling. Preliminary estimates of a dynamic coefficient are provided for each accounted beyond-design impact on the base structure. At this point, calculations of a damageable system in dynamic and static performances are carried out. The analysis of the facility dynamic behavior is made in the physically and geometrically nonlinear formulation using the flow theory. Calculations without regard to time factor are carried out within the deformation plasticity theory with consideration of the influence of axial forces on bars bending. The obtained dynamic coefficients are taken into account in the course of the structural optimization. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by the example of optimal designing of the spatial frame structure with due regard for the possibility of an instant removal of supports for any of its columns along the perimeter of the facility.

**Key words**: spatial steel frames, beyond-design impacts, local destructions, optimization, evolutionary modeling, dynamic coefficient, flow theory, deformation plasticity theory. - REFERENCES

1. Kolchunov V. I., Klyueva N. V., Androsova N. B., Bukhtiyarova A. S. Zhivuchest' zdaniy i sooruzheniy pri zaproektnykh vozdeystviyakh [The survivability of buildings and structures at beyond-design-basis impacts]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2014. 208 p. (In Russian).

2. Tamrazyan A. G. Recommendations for working out requirements for survivability of buildings and structures. Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 2, pp. 77-83. (In Russian).

3. Klueva N. V., Kolchunov V. I., Rypakov D. A., Bukhtiyarova A. S. Durability and deformability of precast-cast-in-place frameworks for residential buildings with low material consumption at beyond-design-basis impacts. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 1, pp. 5-9. (In Russian).

4. ChenJ ., Huang Õ., Ma R., He M. Experimental study on the progressive collapse resistance of a two-story steel moment frame. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 2012, no. 5, vol. 26, pp. 567-575.

5. Kuhlmann U., Roelle L., Izzuddin B. A. Resistance and response of steel and steel-concrete composite structures in progressive collapse assessment. Structural Engineering International, 2012, no. 1, vol. 22, pp. 86-92.

6. Serpik I. N., Kurchenko N. S., Alekseytsev A. V., Lagutina A. A. Analysis of the dynamic behavior of plane frames at emergency actions considering geometrical, material and structural nonlinearities. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 10, pp. 49-51. (In Russian).

7. Berzhinskiy Yu. A., Berzhinskaya L. P. Survivability reserves of girderless frame at beyond-design-basis impacts. Seysmostoykoe stroitel'stvo. Bezopasnost' sooruzheniy, 2013, no. 3, pp. 31-35. (In Russian).

8. Potapov A. N., Ufimtsev E. M. Dynamics of structures with disconnected ties at beyond-design-basis impacts. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 1(649), pp. 12-19. (In Russian).

9. Kolchunov V. I., Degtyar' A. N., Osovskikh E. V. To the reliability optimization of spatial coverings from reinforced concrete panels-shells KSO. Izvestiya OrelGTU. Seriya "Stroitel'stvo. Transport", 2004, no. 3-4, pp. 35-38. (In Russian).

10. Shi L., Yang R.-J., Ping Z. An adaptive response surface method for crashworthiness optimization. Engineering Optimization, 2013, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1365-1377.

11. Degtyar' A. N. Aspects of optimizing the durability of bar reinforced-concrete structures at abrupt beyond-design-basis impacts. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Sworld, 2013, no. 4, vol. 15, pp. 9-12. (In Russian).

12. Zhang Y., Sun G., Xu X. , Li G., Li Q. Multiobjective crashworthiness optimization of hollow and conical tubes for multiple load cases. Thin-Walled Structures, 2014, vol. 82, pp. 331-342.

13. Zhou H., Liang X., Ren X., Xie S.-C. Contrastive analysis and crashworthiness optimization of two composite thin-walled structures. Journal of Central South University, 2014, no. 11, vol. 21, pp. 4386-4394.

14. Bondarenko V. M., Klyueva N. V., Degtyar A. N., Androsova N. B. Optimization of survivability of structurally nonlinear reinforced concrete frame-rod systems at sudden structural changes. Izvestiya OrelGTU. Seriya "Stroitel'stvo. Transport", 2007, no. 4, pp. 5-10. (In Russian).

15. Serpik I. N., Alekseytsev A. V. Optimization of frame structures with the possibility of emergency actions. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal, 2013, no. 9, pp. 23-29. (In Russian).

16. Yang X.-S. Engineering optimization: An introduction with metaheuristic applications. Hoboken, NJ, USA. Wiley, 2010. 347 p.

17. Haupt R. L., Haupt S. E. Practical genetic algorithms. New York. Wiley, 2004. 272 p.

18. Serpik I. N., Alekseytsev A. V. Construction of an efficient algorithm of bars systems optimization on the basis of combined evolutionary strategy. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2011, no. 5, pp. 58-63. (In Russian).

19. Serpik I. N., Kurchenko N. S. Determination of the limit loads for systems with thin-walled opened cross-section rods. Vestnik Bryanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 1, pp. 41-48. (In Russian).

20. Petrov V. V. Nelineynaya inkremental'naya stroitel'naya mekhanika [Incremental non-linear structural mechanics]. Moscow, Infra-Inzheneriya Publ., 2014. 480 p. (In Russian).

21. Zienkiewicz O. C., Taylor R. L., Fox D. The finite element method for solid and structural mechanics. Oxford, Elsevier Publ., 2014. 672 p. - Thermal Creep of Reinforced Concrete Shallow Shells and Flat Plates at High Temperatures
- UDC 624.042.5

**Ashot G. TAMRAZYAN**, e-mail: tamrazian@mail.ru

National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Anna S. KOZHANOVA**, e-mail: parfenovaas@mail.ru

Bryansk State Engineering Technological University, prospect Stanke Dimitrov, 3, Bryansk 241037, Russian Federation

**Absatract**. Issues of proper accounting of material properties and design of reinforced concrete shallow shells and flat plates that allow successful operation at high temperatures are considered. The Influence of the high non-stationary temperature field greatly affects on deformation characteristics of ferroconcrete, and the presence of a temperature gradient turns it into a thermally heterogeneous material. The reduction of the modulus of elasticity with increasing temperature directly reduces the stiffness of the structure, including the possibility of large thermo-elastic deformations and redistribution of stresses. As a part of the fundamental concept of the study, the basic differential equations of the theory and qualitative methods of integrating them as well as resolving equations of reinforced concrete shells at the functional dependence of the elastic moduli of concrete and reinforcement on temperature gradients are presented. The problem is reduced to a recurrent system of two integro-differential equations of the fourth degree regarding the function of the normal component of the displacement of the shell coordinate surface and the tension function. Resolving equations are obtained for the reinforced concrete shallow shell at high temperatures, they can be used for formulating known equations both for elastic shells and for elastic plates.

**Key words**: reinforced concrete shells, theory of shells, thermo-creep, temperature stresses, thermo-elasticity, resolving equations for reinforced concrete shallow shells. - REFERENCES

1. Andreev V. I., Yazyev B. M., Chepurnenko A. S. Axisymmetric bending of a round elastic plate in case of creep. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 5, pp. 16-24. (In Russian).

2. Novozhilov V. V., Chernykh K. F., Mikhaylovskiy E. I. Lineynaya teoriya tonkikh obolochek [Linear theory of thin shells]. Leningrad, Politekhnika Publ., 1991. 656 p. (In Russian).

3. Vlasov V. Z. Izbrannye trudy [Selected Papers]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1962. Vol. 1, 528 p. (In Russian).

4. Tamrazyan A. G., Esayan S. G. Mekhanika polzuchesti betona [Concrete creep mechanics]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012. 524 p. (In Russian).

5. Tamrazyan A. G. On the calculation of reinforced concrete elements with due regard for creep and aging onthe basis of rheological model of concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 7, pp. 26-27. (In Russian).

6. Savenkova M. I., Sheshenin S. V., Zakalyukina I. M. Application of homogenization method to elastoplastic bending of a plate. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no. 9, pp. 156-164. (In Russian).

7. Tamrazyan A. G. Concrete and reinforced concrete - glance at future. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 4, pp. 181-189. (In Russian).

8. Tamrazyan A. G. To the bending of an unevenly heated reinforced concrete beam in the conditions of a steady creep. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2000, no. 1, pp. 24-25. (In Russian). - Features of Simulation of Monolithic Frame Buildings with Due Regard for Temperature Difference
- UDC 624.012.4:624.92

**Tatyana M. GUREVICH**

**Elena I. PRIMAKINA**, e-mail: ei.primakina@mail.ru

**Anastasia A. SAPUNOVA**, e-mail: krilovaaa@yandex.ru, Michael G. PLYUSNIN, å-mail: apraiser3@yandex.ru

Kostroma State Agricultural Academy, Uchebnyy gorodok, 34, pos. Karavaevo, Kostromskoy rayon, Kostromskaya obl. 156530, Russian Federation

**Absatrct**. Monolithic construction unlike other technologies of residential buildings construction has the following advantages: the variety of options for constructive solutions, high speed of construction, relatively low prices, the possibility of constructing thinner walls and ceilings, the absence of joints and the sealing reliability in the finished structures. However, the current norms when designing monolithic reinforced concrete buildings oblige designers to perform calculations on strength and crack resistance of structures with due regard for the temperature difference. At present, methods for such calculations are not available and in the calculations with the use of specialized programs there are difficulties which can lead to a biased result. In the article, on the example of a real design problem of 13-storey monolithic building of complex configuration, it is shown how to convert models of multi-storey monolithic buildings resting on piles when exporting / importing from software complex "MONOMAH" to SC "LIRA" for the purpose of calculation of reinforcement of building elements with due regard for temperature difference. The calculation model obtained as a result of transformation reflects more realistically the stress-strain state of a pile grillage.

**Key words**: calculation model, pile grillage, temperature difference. - REFERENCES

1. Tour V., Markowski M., Sherbach A. The new construction of high-rise buildings made of reinforced concrete. Architectura i stroitellstvo, 2008, no. 2, pp. 72-81. (In Russian).

2. Gorodetsky A. S., Nazarov Yu. P., Zhuk Yu. N., Simbirkin V. N. Improving the quality of design of structures based on the sharing of software packages LIRA and STARK ES. Informationnyy vestnik Mosoblgosekspertizy, 2005, no. 1(8), pp. 42-49. (In Russian).

3. Snegirev A. I., Alhimenko A. I. The effect of temperature on the circuit during the construction of the voltage in the load-bearing structures. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal, 2008, no. 2, pp. 8-16. (In Russian).

4. Konoplyanik A. Y., Semenov E. D. Calculation airfield plates on temperature and climate load. Vestnik Dnepropetrovskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii stroitel'stva i arkhitektury, 2014, no. 2, pp. 30-38. (In Russian).

5. Konoplyanik A. Y., Semenov E. D. The calculation of the distribution of temperature fields in the thickness of plates from the aerodrome, taking into account the effect of temperature and climatic influences. Vestnik Dnepropetrovskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii stroitel'stva i arkhitektury, 2013, no. 9, pp. 28-34. (In Russian).

6. Shapiro G. I., Korovkin V. S. On the problem of stressed-deformated state of residential and public buildings under thermal effect. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2008, no. 12, pp. 5-7. (In Russian).

7. Gorodetsky A., Shmukler V. S., Bondarev A. V. Information technology calculation and design of building structures. Kharkov, NTU "KPI" Publ., 2003. 889 p. (In Russian). - A Solution to Insoluble Problems of Technical Regulation in Construction
- UDC 69(083.75)

**Vladimir I. TRAVUSH**, e-mail: travush@mail.ru

Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, ul. Bol'shaya Dmitrovka, 24, Moscow 107031, Russian Federation

**Yuri S. VOLKOV**, e-mail: volkov@cstroy.ru

NIIZHB named A. A. Gvozdev NIC "Construction", 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, korp. 5, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article analyses problems related to the application of the list of normative documents in the practice of construction on a mandatory and voluntary basis. The transition to the voluntary use of standards in construction has not affected neither on accelerating its development nor on improving the quality of works. The status of documents which are not included both into mandatory and voluntary lists is not clear. In addition, the clause of the Technical Regulations on the implementation of mandatory requirements on a voluntary basis requires to be clarified. A solution of the problem of double application of documents by refraining from any of the lists is proposed. Current normative acts quite allow to do it.

**Key words**: technical regulation, normative documents, mandatory and voluntary application. - About Influence of Differential Settlements on Stress-Strain State of Bar Spatial Structures
- UDC 624.014.046

**Nikolai N. DEMIDOV**, e-mail: melirina08@mail.ru

**Varvara G. MELIKOVA**, e-mail: madcheese-h@yandex.ru

National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Problems under consideration relate to damages of spatial bar structures, as a result of many years operation, including those due to non-uniform sediments which are found in more than 90% of structures surveyed. The article analyzes the influence of the vertical asymmetry of support assemblies on the stress-strain state of various spatial beam structures based on more than four points. An example of the calculation of cross-beams of three directions for vertical asymmetry made with the use of descriptive geometry methods and the matrix unit of linear algebra is presented. It is established that the effective solution of the problem with the use of the fictitious points method can be limited by the study of one determinant instead of several. The developed method is applicable not only to the beam systems, but also to continual systems.

**Key words**: spatial beam structures, inspection, defects, differential settlement, distortion, plane, plane of general position, redistribution of efforts. - REFERENCES

1. Demidov N. N. Speciallities of checking calculations of structural designs, based on four points, with uneven misalignment. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 1, pp. 50-53. (In Russian).

2. Demidov N. N. Assessment of influence of vertical obliquity of supporting units of steel space-grid structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 12, pp. 82-85. (In Russian).

3. Mengerinhausen Raumfachwerke aus Staben und Knoten. Wiesbaden und Berlin, Bauverlag GMBH, 1975. 335 s.

4. Buttner O., Stenker H. Metalleichtbauten. Berlin, VEB Verlag fur Bau-wesen, 1970. 224 s.

5. Trofimov V. I., Begun G. B. Strukturnye konstruktsii [Structural construction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1972. 266 p. (In Russian).

6. Lebed E. V., Eterevsky V. A. Analysis of the initial efforts sector-mesh dome at the full assembly installation compared to the stellate dome. Vestnik Rossiyskogo universiteta druzhby narodov, 2012, no. 4, pp. 91-98. (In Russian).

7. Lebed E. V., Eterevsky V. A. Initial efforts terminals odnosetchatogo dome due to the imperfections of its shape in the full assembly installation. Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 2, pp. 137-144. (In Russian).

8. Tusnin A. R. The bearing capacity of the I-beam under the action of torsional loads. Montazhnye i spetsial'nye raboty v stroitel'stve. 2003, no. 2, p. 4. (In Russian). - BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
- Increasing the Durability of Monolithic Foam Concrete of Low Density by Cement Modification with Activated Crystalline Hydrates
- UDC 691.327.333-033.32

**Valeriy V. PLOTNIKOV**, e-mail: plotn57@mail.ru

**Mikhail V. BOTAGOVSKIY**, e-mail: bo1981@mail.ru

Bryansk State Engineering Technological University, prospect Stanke Dimitrov, 3, Bryansk 241037, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article presents the results of studies on the development of energy- and resource-saving technology of erection of multilayer exterior walls in the monolithic housing construction with the use of multi-component cement foam concrete of low density and thermal conductivity. The advantage of this technology lies in the control of foam cement structure formation during its obtaining and in the early stages of hardening. It is found that as a result of the use of a variety of replaceable working bodies of activator-mixers, modes of processing and activation of binders, chemical additives (superplasticizers, hardening accelerators, structure stabilizers), the obtained monolithic foam concrete has homogeneous finely porous structure and possesses rapid setting and a set of fairly high initial strength, which, in turn, makes it possible to reduce the shrinkage phenomenon significantly. Conducted studies have shown the possibility of obtaining effective foam concrete on the basis of multi-component binding compositions with the use of such wastes as conditioned ash, dust-ash of claydite gravel production, nepheline sludge, fire, ospreys, asbestite, slags, waste paper and other wastes of pulp and paper industry. A special effect is achieved when using activated crystalline hydrates as structure modifying agents obtained on the basis of nepheline sludge encouraging the formation of stable and sustainable to recrystallization calcium hydro silicates which provides a significant increase in the strength and durability of monolithic foam concrete.

**Key words**: multilayer enclosing structures, monolithic foam concrete, durability, thermal protection of buildings, thermal conductivity, activation in a liquid medium, finely dispersed industrial waste, activated crystalline hydrates, nepheline sludge. - REFERENCES

1. Plotnikov V. V. Botagovskiy M. V. Sovremennye tekhnologii povysheniya teplozashchity zdaniy [Modern technologies of increasing thermal performance of buildings.]. Bryansk, BGITA Publ., 2010. 199 p. (In Russian).

2. Mamontov A. A., Jarcev V. P., Strulev S. A. Analysis of different humidity insulation in the building envelope when operating in the heating period. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitelstvo, 2013, no. 4, pp. 117-119. (In Russian).

3. Cammerer W. F. Der Feuchtigkeitseinflub auf die Wàrmeleitfàhigkeit von Bau- und Wàrmedàmmstoffen. Bauphysik, 1987, jr. 9, h. 6, pp. 259-266.

4. Isaev S. A., Guvernyuk S. V., Zubin M. A., Prigorodov Yu. S. Numerical and physical modeling of a low-velocity air flow in a channel with a circular vortex cell. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2000, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 337-344.

5. Kornienko S. V. The characteristics of the moisture in the materials of building Envelopes. Stroitelnye materialy, 2007, no. 4, pp. 74-78. (In Russian).

6. Gagarin V.G., Pastushkov P. P. Determination of design moisture of building materials. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2015, no. 8, pp. 28-33. (In Russian).

7. Bazhenov Y. M., Plotnikov V.V. Aktivatsiya vyazhushchikh kompozitsiy v rotorno-pul'satsionnykh apparatakh [Activation of binding compositions in the rotary pulsation apparatus]. Bryansk, BGITA Publ., 2001. 336 p. (In Russian).

8. Plotnikov V.V. Povyshenie effektivnosti ispol'zovaniya zol TES v betonakh [Increasing the efficiency of using conditioned ashes in concretes]. Bryansk, BGITA Publ., 2009. 130 p. (In Russian).

9. Plotnikov V.V. Aktivirovannye mikro- i nanostruktury dlya sinteza tsementnykh kompozitsionnykh materialov [Activated micro- and nanostructures for the synthesis of cement composites]. Bryansk, BGITA Publ., 2009. 185 p. (In Russian).

10. Balzannikov M. I., Mikhasek A. A. The use of modified composite materials in building hydraulic engineering structures. Procedia Engineering, 2014, vol. 91, pp. 183-187.

11. Yushkov B. S., Semenov S. S. The use of metallurgical waste for concrete production. Modernizatsiya I nauchnye issledovaniya v transportnom komplekse, 2014, no. 1, pp. 556-558. (In Russian).

12. Karpenko N. I., Yarmakovskia V. N., Shkol'nik Ya. Sh. Status and prospects of applying of technologenic formations processing products in the construction industry. Ekologiya i promyshlennost Rossii, 2012, no. 10, pp. 50-54. (In Russian). - Study of Influence of Superplasticizers Based on Polycarboxylate Ethers on Properties of Concrete
- UDC 666.972.16

**Alexey V. KRAVTSOV**, e-mail: kravtsov1992@yandex.ru

**Lidiya M. BORODINA**, e-mail: borodina.lidija2015@yandex.ru

**Sergey V. TSIBAKIN**, e-mail: sv44kostroma@yandex.ru

**German M. SOKOLOV**, e-mail: german.sokolov.2003@yandex.ru

Kostroma State Agricultural Academy, Uchebnyy gorodok, 34, pos. Karavaevo, Kostromskoy rayon, Kostromskaya obl. 156530, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The use of contemporary plasticizing and complex admixtures is in demand by construction because of growing rates and scales of concrete works. At present, superplasticizers based on esters with carboxyl groups have not been sufficiently studied due to the diversity of species and complexity of their chemical structures. The article considers results of the study of the influence of polycarboxylate superplasticizers on strength and technological properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete. Data on the influence of chemical admixtures based on polycarboxylate esters on the structure of cement stone are presented. The dynamics of changes in the axial compressive strength, normal density of cement paste, water/cement ratio depending on the percent dosage of an additive in mixtures with constant water requirement and constant slump of concrete cone on the flow table is graphically presented. The results obtained make it possible to conclude about significant advantages of this kind of plasticizing admixtures for manufacturing the concrete of different purpose and the field of application.

**Key words**: plasticizer, superplasticizer, hyperplasticizer, chemical admixture, polycarboxylate ester. - REFERENCES

1. Izotov V. S., Ibragimov R. A. Influence of domestic hypersofteners on physicomechanical properties of heavy concrete. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo universiteta, 2010, no. 1(13), pp. 287-291. (In Russian).

2. Vovk A. I. Additives on the basis of domestic polycarboxylates. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka, 2012, no. 9 (164), pp. 31-33. (In Russian).

3. Izotov V. S., Ibragimov R. A. Resource in the manufacture of concrete products with the use of hyper plasticizer additives. Tekhnologii betonov, 2013, no. 5(82), pp. 40-41. (In Russian).

4. Khvastunov V. L., Khvastunov A. V., Pausk V. V. Strength and deformation characteristics and high-strength concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete with a low specific consumption of cement per unit of strength. Regional'naya arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 4, pp. 15-23. (In Russian).

5. Potapova E. N., Isaeva I. V. Influence of additives on the water-resistant gypsum binder. Sukhie stroitel'nye smesi, 2012, no. 5, pp. 38-41. (In Russian).

6. Kalashnikov V. I., Khvastunov A. V., Khvastunov V. L. Physico-mechanical and hygrometric properties of powder-activated high-strenhgth gravel concrete and fiber-reinforced gravel concrete with a low specific consumption of cement per unit of strength. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Povolzh'ya, 2011, no. 5, pp. 161-164. (In Russian).

7. Baranova A. A., Savenkov A. I. Aerated concrete modified by silicafume of "KREMNIY" CJSC. Vestnik Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2014, no. 8(91), pp. 78-82. (In Russian).

8. Petropavlovskaya V. B., Bur'yanov A. F., Novichenkova T. B., Petropavlovskiy K. S. Foamed gypsum materials based on protein frother ufapor. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU, 2014, no. 2(33), p. 7. (In Russian).

9. Potapova E. N., Golubeva O. A. Durability of products based on white cement. Sukhie stroitel'nye smesi, 2014, no. 4, pp. 18-21. (In Russian).

10. Pimenov A. I., Ibragimov R. A., Izotov V. S. Physico-mechanical properties of cement composites modified nano additive. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2015, no. 1, vol. 18, pp. 128-130. (In Russian). - ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. TOWN PLANNING
- International Practices In Indices Comparison Of Management Efficiency In Urban Development Process
- UDC 69.003:658.387.018(100)

**Leonid V. KIEVSKIY**, e-mail: mail@dev-city.ru

Research and Design Center "City Development", Prospect Mira, 19, str. 3, Moscow 129090, Russian Federation

**Alexey S. SERGEEV**, e-mail: sergeev.as@gmail.com

National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Comparison of the organization efficiency factors is necessary for correlation of the development levels of different countries economies in industry aspect. There are different methodological approaches to the definition of key performance indicators of the organization production, including the labor performance at the various stages of the production cycle. In addition, there are significant differences in the structure and timing of the production process, in particular the urban development process in Russia and foreign practice. The purpose of this work is to compare the labor performance assessment in Russia and foreign countries. The article includes a comparison of the structure and time of investment process in Russian and foreign practice of urban development. Labor performance is considered as a socio-economical and technical variable, as well as primary efficiency of the urban process organization. The correlation analysis of Russia and foreign data and the author's approach allows to see an influence of the labor performance growth reserves in urban development process on the comparative assessment of the construction industry in Russia and abroad.

**Key words**: management efficiency, urban development process, labor performance, international comparative assessment. - REFERENCES

1. Levkin S. I., Kievskiy L. V. Program-oriented and goal-oriented approach to urban planning policy. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 8, pp. 6-9. (In Russian).

2. Levkin S. I., Kievskiy L. V., Shirov A. A. Multiplicative effect of Moscow building complex. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 3, ðp. 3-9. (In Russian).

3. Kievskiy L. V. From construction management to investment process in construction management. CITY DEVELOPMENT: collection of proceedings 2006- 2014. Moscow, SvR-ARGUS Publ., 2014, pp. 205-221. (In Russian).

4. Kievskiy L. V. Planirovanie i organizacija stroitel'stva inzhenernyh kommunikacij [Planning and management of engineering services construction]. Moscow, SvR-ARGUS Publ., 2008. 464 p. (In Russian).

5. Sergeev A. S. Risc assessment in construction projects evaluation. Modernization of investment-building and housing-municipal complexes. International collection of proceedings. Moscow, MGAKHiS Publ., 2011, pp. 538-541. (In Russian).

6. Malyha G. G., Sinenko S. A., Vajnshtejn M. S., Kulikova E. N. Structural modeling of data: requisites of data object in construction modeling. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no. 4, pp. 226-230. (In Russian).

7. Chulkov G. O. Synthesis and analysis of design solutions in CAD preparation of construction. Management of investment-building and housing-municipal complexes. International collection of proceedings. Moscow, MGAKHiS Publ., 2010, pp. 538-541. (In Russian).

8. Zhukovskij Ju. B., Sabaneev S. N. Jekspertiza v stroitel'stve [Expertise in construction]. Moscow, KITS XXI Publ., 2002. 432 p. (In Russian).

9. Leushin V. Ju., Vasil'eva R. I. Comparative analysis of the investment process in the domestic and foreign practice the implementation of innovative processes. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tehnologii XXI veka, 2005, no. 1, p. 74. (In Russian).

10. Dikman L. G., Dikman D. L. Organizacija stroitel'stva v USA [Organization of construction in the USA]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004. 376 p. (In Russian).

11. Bessonov V. A., Gimpel'son V. E., Kuz'minov Ja. I., Jasin E. G. Proizvoditel'nost' truda i faktory dolgosrochnogo razvitija rossijskoj jekonomiki [Labor productivity and long term factors of development of the Russian economy.]. Moscow, GU VshJe Publ., 2009. 26 p. (In Russian).

12. Zajcev A. A. Cross-country analysis of labor productivity regional diagnosis and Industry Analysis productivity 1991-2008 years. Available at: http://inecon.org/docs/Zaytsev_ paper_20140424.pdf (accessed 19.06.2015). (In Russian).

13. Zajcev A. A. Regional diagnosis and Industry Analysis labor productivity. Available at: http://kapitalrus.ru/index.php/ members/author/150/, http://www.kapitalrus.ru/index.php/articles/ article/219434 (accessed 19.06.2015). (In Russian).

14. Matreninskiy S. I. Methodological approach to the classification of compacthousing development areas for making decisions on their maintenance and reorganization. Nauchnyy vestnik Voronezhskogo GASU. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura, 2013, no. 1, pp. 49-57. (In Russian).

15. Boeria A., Gabrielli L., Longo D. Evaluation and Feasibility Study of Retrofitting Interventions on Social Housing in Italy. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng. 2011.11.2125. (accessed 19.06.2015).

16. Dodman D., Dalal-Clayton B., McGranahan G. Integrating the environment in urban planning and management: Key principles and approaches for cities in the 21century. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) United Nations Environment Programme, 2013.

17. Managing Asian Cities: Sustainable and Inclusive Urban Solutions. Available at: http://www.adb.org/Documents/ Studies/Managing-Asian-Cities/part02-07.pdf (accessed 19.06.2015).

18. PlaNYC Progress Report 2010. Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/ downloads/pdf/planyc_progress_report_2010.pdf (accessed 19.06.2015). - Mathematical Models of Population Dynamics and Impact of Environmental Factors on the Population in Urban Areas
- UDC 351.777.8.001.57:312

**Vladimir K. VOSTROV**, e-mail: vostrv@mail.ru

Melnikov Central Research and Design Institute of Steel Structures, ul. Arkhitektora Vlasova, 49, Moscow 117997, Russian Federation

**Vasiliy V. TRETYAKOV**, e-mail: objekt13@mail.ru

All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics named after N. L. Dukhov, ul. Sushchevskaya, 22, Moscow 127055, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. In order to monitor and control the environment and demographic situation in urban areas, the present paper discusses the mathematical simulation of dynamics and interaction of population and environmental factors. The mathematical models based on systems of ordinary differential equations reflect the interaction of subsystems in the form of the population and pollution parameters of air and water bodies in urban areas. The analysis of two existing mathematical models with due regard for the Malthusian factors is based on linear and quadratic dependence of the population growth rate on the population under ideal conditions. Stable stationary states are not discovered for all the values of defining parameters in the existing models. Non-negative solutions for the population is absent in the linear model. The quadratic model allows non-negative solutions at a positive initial population and oscillations. These qualitatively different solutions for the quadratic model describe either the unlimited growth of population within unlimited time interval or limited growth of the population and its disappearance in a finite time interval. Along with well-known mathematical models of population dynamics, the authors propose an alternative non-linear model based on the analogue of the mathematical model of co-existence of two kinds. The alternative model leads to a stable stationary zero state, non-negative non-periodic solutions at the positive initial population and may be suitable both for describing the dynamics of the population and controlling the demographic situation in urban areas.

**Key words**: mathematical model, population, urban area, biosphere pollution, phase trajectories, singular points, characteristic equation. - REFERENCES

1. Il'ichev V. A., Kolchunov V. I., Gordon V. A. The method of forecasting of indexes of biosphereconsist urbanized areas. Gradostroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 1, pp. 37-43. (In Russian).

2. Il'ichev V. A. Principles of Transformation of a City in Biosphere Compatible and Developing the Person. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 6, pp. 3-13. (In Russian).

3. Il'ichev V. A., Kolchunov V. I., Gordon V. A. Mathematical Model of Dynamics and Interference of External and Internal Directions in Activity of a Biosphere Compatible City. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 12, pp. 37-41. (In Russian).

4. Slovokhotov Yu. L. Analogs of phase transitions in the economy and demography. Komp'yuternye issledovaniya i modelirovanie, 2010, no. 2, vol. 2, pp. 209-218. (In Russian).

5. Andronov A. A., Vitt A. A., Khaykin S. E. Teoriya kolebaniy [Theory of vibrations]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1981. 568 p. (In Russian).

6. Malkin I. G. Teoriya ustoychivosti dvizheniya [The theory of stability of motion]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1966. 530 p. (In Russian).

7. Magnus K. Kolebaniya. Vvedenie v issledovanie kolebatel'nykh sistem [Fluctuations. Introduction to the study of vibrating systems]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1982. 304 p. (In Russian).

8. Panovko Ya. G., Gubanova I. I. Ustoychivost' i kolebaniya uprugikh sistem [Stability and oscillations of elastic systems]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1967. 418 p. (In Russian).

9. Pars L. A. Analiticheskaya dinamika [Analytical dynamics]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971. 635 p. (In Russian).

10. Kauderer G. Nelineynaya mekhanika [Nonlinear mechanics]. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo inostrannoy literatury Publ., 1961. 777 p. (In Russian).

11. Gumilev L. N. Ot Rusi do Rossii. Ocherki etnicheskoy istorii [From Rus to Russia. Essays on ethnic history]. Moscow, Ayris-press Publ., 2014. 313 p. (In Russian).

12. Gumilev L. N. Teoriya etnogeneza: Velikoe otkrytie ili mistifikatsiya? [Theory of ethnogenesis: Great discovery or hoax]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2013. 702 p. - BASES AND FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
- Evaluation Program of Soil Slopes Stability with Due Regard for Formation of Sliding Surface Delineated along the Logarithmic Spiral
- UDC 624.137.2

**Maksim Yu. PROKUROV**, e-mail: m.prokuroff@mail.ru

**Aleksandr A. INDYKIN**, e-mail: indykin_aa@mail.ru

Bryansk State Engineering Technological University, prospect Stanke Dimitrov, 3, Bryansk 241037, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Assessment of the stability of natural slopes and side slopes of soil structures by the method of circular cylindrical sliding surfaces is based on the visual mathematical model easily formalizable for automated computer calculations. However, the implementation of this model is impeded by the need for finding the center of rotation of the soil failure wedge by varying two coordinates for determining the minimum value of the stability coefficient of the considered slope. A simplified approach based on the assumption that the sliding surface of the failure wedge is described by the equation of logarithmic spiral, for which the circle is a special case is offered in the presented software. At the same time the position of the rotation center of soil mass failure is set by geometric parameters of the slope, and the necessary enumeration of possible solutions is based on the variation of a single variable, which is the coefficient of logarithmic spiral. For its possible values, bilateral boundaries, determined on the basis of common initial data of the problem, are obtained. Thus, a two-dimensional optimization problem is reduced to one-dimensional. The paper presents the description of the methodology, the general algorithm and an example of the program for assessing the slope stability of homogeneous soil.

**Key words**: slopes, failure wedge, logarithmic spiral, stability coefficient. - REFERENCES

1. Bogomolov A. N., Bogomolova O. A., Shiyan S. I., Kuzhel V. N. The function of stability factors during the analysis of ground slopes and structure bases. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya "Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura", 2010, no. 19(38), pp. 39-43. (In Russian).

2. Bogomolova O. A., Echevskiy A. V., Babakhanov B. S., Shiyan S. I., Solov'yev A. V., Makhova S. I., Kalinovskiy S. A. Calculation approach of loaded slopes and its experimental justification. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya "Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura", 2012, no. 26(45), pp. 32-40. (In Russian).

3. Zhabko A. V. Fundamentals of the general theory of calculation of slope stability. Izvestiya Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo gornogo universiteta, 2013, no. 4, pp. 47-58. (In Russian).

4. Parfenov S. G., Prokurov M. Y., Indykin A. A., Kireev A. A. The investigation of stability of repose with the formation of sliding surface drawn under the logarithmetical helix. Izvestiya Yugo-Zapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2011, no. 5-2(38), pp. 118-122. (In Russian).

5. Shiyan S. I., Bogomolov A. N., Kuzhel V. N., Babakhanov B. S., Solovyev A. V. In respect of a long-term slope stableness of soil structures. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya "Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura", 2011, no. 23(42), pp. 5-16. (In Russian). - Stabilization Of Settlements Of Building Under Construction With Alkalization
- UDC 624.138.4:624.131.22

**Feliks E. VOLKOV**

**Artem A. GERA**, e-mail: zashOGIO@bk.ru

Institut Bashniistroi, ul. Konstitutsii, 3, Ufa 450064, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Experience in the construction of buildings and structures under the complex engineering-geological conditions shows that the engineering development of low permeable, water- saturated, clay soils causes the greatest difficulties. In the course of construction works under these conditions the need arises to artificially improve building properties of soils in places of their natural bedding, since the existing methods of engineering base preparation are ineffective or economically unsuitable in many cases. The manifestation of specific features of clayey soils in saturated condition via the processes of soaking, heaving, swelling often leads to the loss of bearing capacity of soil. The main problem of technical melioration of these soils is a directed change in their properties with the purpose to improve their strength and bearing capacity. Clay soil stabilization is used when constructing and strengthening bases of buildings and structures under construction, reconstruction or emergency state as well as when strengthening the bearing capacity of piles. The complexity of the problem is that most known methods for injection strengthening of soils are unacceptable for one reason or another or have limited possibilities in relation to water-saturated clay soils due to their low permeability. In this connection, on the basis of experimental and theoretical studies of interaction of clay soils with caustic alkali solutions the method for strengthening clay soils by alkalization has been developed. It is based on the use of water solutions of the hydroxide of alkaline metals (caustic alkalis) which enter into irreversible chemical reactions with clay minerals with appearance of new formations, cementing soil particles. The synthesis of binders takes place directly in the soil due to its own resources extracted from mineral components of the soil under the condition of highly alkaline environment. Experience in the stabilization of differential settlements of the strip foundation of a 4-storey multifunctional building under construction is expounded. The lime-alkali solution (modification of the alkali solution) is used to strengthen the diluvial, silt, high plastic loam, this makes it possible to significantly improve the calculated resistance of loam.

**Key words**: alkalization, diluvial loam, sodium hydroxide, strip foundations, settlements, lime-alkali solution. - REFERENCES

1. Konovalov P. A. Osnovaniya i fundamenty rekonstruiruemykh zdaniy [Bases and foundations of reconstructed buildings]. Moscow, Bumazhnaya Galereya Publ., 2000. 317 p. (In Russian).

2. Polishchuk A. I., Petukhov L. A. Primenenie in"ektsionnykh svay pri usilenii fundamentov rekonstruiruemykh zdaniy [The use of injection piles at strengthening the foundations of reconstructed buildings]. Sovremennye geotekhnologii v stroitel'stve i ikh nauchno-tekhnicheskoe soprovozhdenie [Modern geotechnologies in construction and their scientific and technical support]. Materialy mezhdunar. nauch.-tekhn. konf., posvyashchennoy 80-letiyu obrazovaniya kafedry geotekhniki SPbGASU (mekhaniki gruntov, osnovaniy i fundamentov LISI) i 290-letiyu rossiyskoy nauki. Saint Petersburg, SpbGASU Publ., 2014, pt. 1, pp. 148-157. (In Russian).

3. Sokolovich V. E. Khimicheskoe zakreplenie gruntov [Chemical fixation of soils]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1980. 119 p. (In Russian).

4. Volkov F. E. Strengthening of water-saturated clay soils with sodium hydroxide solutions of high concentrations. Inzhenernaya geologiya, 2012, no. 4, pp. 51-59. (In Russian).

5. Volkov F. E., Voronkevich S. D., Zlochevskaya R. I., Samarin E. N. Zakreplenie glinistykh porod izvestkovo-shchelochnymi rastvorami [Consolidation of clayey rocks of calc-alkaline solutions]. Sostav i svoystva glinistykh mineralov i porod [The composition and properties of clay minerals and rocks]. Novosibirsk, 1988, pp. 51-52. (In Russian). - FIRE AND INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
- Effect of Petroleum Products on the Reliability of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Load-Bearing Structures
- UDC 624.012.4:699.8:665.7

**Alexandr P. SVINTSOV**, e-mail: svintsovap@rambler.ru

**Yury V. NIKOLENKO**, e-mail: yvnikolenko39@gmail.com

**Makhmud I. KHARUN**, e-mail: miharun@rambler.ru

**Alexandr S. KAZAKOV**, e-mail: kazakov55566@mail.ru

People's Friendship University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklaya ul., 6, Moscow 117198, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Ensuring the reliability and technical safety of load-bearing structures is one of the most important areas of operation of industrial buildings. The impact of petroleum products, widely used in industrial processes, leads to a significant change in physical and mechanical properties of concrete and reinforced concrete and can serve as a technical cause of accidents and emergencies. Currently available methods and guidelines for assessing the reliability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures do not fully take into account these changes making it difficult to predict the possibility of failure-free operation of bearing concrete and reinforced concrete structures of industrial buildings of machine-building industry, power engineering, petroleum refineries etc. It is established that various petroleum products do not equally impact on concrete and reinforced concrete structures impregnated by them. However, the influence of oil products with different viscosity on the reliability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures, judging by scientific publication, has not been studied fully and the general theory of reliability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures impregnated with oil product has not been developed. In this connection, experimental studies are a main direction of development of methods for predicting the probability of failure-free operation. Authors have studied two groups of samples made of concrete and cement-sand mortar and impregnated with petroleum products of various viscosities, and the control group without impregnation. Mathematical processing of the obtained data was carried out using the theory of probability and mathematical statistics. As a result of theoretical and experimental studies, the mechanism of effect of petroleum products with different viscosities on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete, that determines the reliability of load-bearing structures of industrial buildings, are revealed.

**Key words**: concrete, reinforced concrete, petroleum products, viscosity, strength, deformation, endurance, stress, reliability, load-bearing structures. - REFERENCES

1. Vasil'ev N. M. Deformativnost of the concrete impregnated with oil products. Beton i zhelezobeton, 1988, no. 12, pp. 10-11. (In Russian).

2. Vorob'ev A. A., Said Mokhamad. Influence of oil products on some deformativny properties of concrete at short-term loading. Beton i zhelezobeton, 2003, no. 6, pp. 18-20. (In Russian).

3. Permyakova V. V., Lebedeva N. A., Pozhitkova O. A. Research of a condition of the concrete and ferroconcrete designs subject to influence of fulfilled oil. Izvestiya VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva, 2000, vol. 237, pp. 18-24. (In Russian).

4. Yusupova Yu. F. Influence of oil products on some deformativny properties of concrete at short-term loading. Izvestiya KazGASU, 2008, no. 1 (9), pp. 137-140. (In Russian).

5. Svintsov A. P., Nikolenko Yu. V., Kharun M. I., Kazakov A. S. Influence of viscosity of oil products on deformativny properties of concrete. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal, 2014, no. 7 (51), pp. 16-22. (In Russian).

6. Vorob'ev A. A., Basov Yu. K. Deformations at short-term axial compression of the concrete impregnated with oil products. Konstruktsii iz kompozitsionnykh materialov, 2008, no. 4, pp. 88-95. (In Russian).

7. Vorob'ev A. A., Kazakov A. S. Influence of mineral oils on operational qualities of ferroconcrete designs. Vestnik rossiyskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Inzhenernye issledovaniya, 2010, no. 2, pp. 32-35. (In Russian).

8. Hesham Diab. Compressive strength performance of low- and high-strength concrete soaked in mineral oil. Construction and Building Materials, 2012, vol. 33, pp. 25-31.

9. Novikova O. O., Senyushchenkova I. M. Aggressive factors influencing on underground parts of buildings and structures in oil-contaminated soils. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 9, pp. 24-25. (In Russian).

10. Glazunov Yu. V. Osobennosti razrusheniya betona pri mnogokratno povtoryayushchemsya deystvii nagruzki [Features of destruction of concrete at repeatedly repeating action of loading]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy sbornik "Kommunal'noe khozyaystvo gorodov", 2003, no. 47, pp. 34-38. (In Russian).

11. Mirsayapov I. T. Physical models of fatigue resistance of the ferroconcrete bent elements to action of cross forces. Izvestiya KazGASU, 2006, no. 1 (5), pp. 82-86. (In Russian).

12. Mirsayapov I. T. Zones of concentration of tension at cyclic loading in an area of coverage of cross forces of ferroconcrete beams. Izvestiya KazGASU, 2008, no. 1 (9), pp. 83-88. (In Russian).

13. Svintsov A. P., Nikolenko Yu. V., Kazakov A. S. Assessment of endurance impregnated with oil products concrete and the ferroconcrete bearing designs. Vestnik rossiyskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Inzhenernye issledovaniya, 2014, no. 4, pp. 35-40. (In Russian). - TECHNOLOGY AND BUILDING ORGANIZATION
- Formation of Efficient Models of Organization of Works and Commissioning of Objects of Transport Complex
- UDC 69.003:65.14

**Alexander V. KABANOV**, e-mail: avkabanov07@inbox.ru

Petersburg State Transport University, Moskowsky prosp., 9, St. Petersburg 190031, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. A problem of organizational and technological design includes the development of rational options of the organization of construction works. Large transport complexes consisting of the objects of different branches are constructed by stages, turns, start-up facilities. To determine the rational concentration of capital investments for each stage, the efficiency of options of various sequence of commissioning of objects is considered. Complexes of works - nodes and nodal flows allowing to make intermediate acceptance of the finished objects and to reduce risks of freezing of capital investments - are highlighted. The rational option of the organization of an inter-nodal stream is determined by indicators of combination, decrease in self-cost of construction and erection works, improving the efficiency of using the active part of basic production assets of construction organizations. For the automated selection of necessary indicators, the software application suite Microsoft Project is used.

**Key words**: phased commissioning, inter-nodal stream, coefficient of combination of inter-nodal stream, decrease in cost of construction and erection works by option of inter-nodal stream. - REFERENCES

1. Razvitie i rekonstruktsiya sotsial'no-transportnoy infrastruktury megapolisa [The development and reconstruction of social and transport infrastructure of the metropolis. Elevated highway over the railway. Scientific publication.]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2011. 328 p. (In Russian).

2. Kabanov A. V. Nodal method for organizing the construction of major transport projects: reconstruction of the railway station. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 82-85. (In Russian).

3. Kabanov A. V., Rybachok V. M., Putrolaynen E. A. Assessment of the operational readiness of the way. Put' i putevoe khozyaystvo, 2010, no. 2, pp. 25-27. (In Russian).

4. Kabanov A. V. Methods target synchronization of complex flows in the construction of large industrial and transport facilities. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Instituta stroitel'stva i arkhitektury MGSU "Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo v sovremennykh usloviyakh" [Collection of scientific works of the Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture MGSU. Industrial and civil construction in modern conditions]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, pp.156-160 (In Russian).

5. Olejnik P. P. Organizacija stroitel'nogo proizvodstva [Organization of construction production]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010. 576 p. (In Russian).

6. Oleynik P. P., Votyakova O. N. Assessing the impact of factors on the construction and installation works of power facilities. Tekhnologiya i organizatsiya stroitel'nogo proizvodstva, 2013, no. 3, pp. 45-46. (In Russian).

7. Morozenko A. A. The algorithm performance evaluation of organizational and technological structure of production of investment and construction project. Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 8, pp. 384-388 (In Russian).

8. Lapidus A. A. Demidov L. P. Study integrated indicator of quality that takes into account the impact of organizational and technological solutions in the formation of the construction site. Tekhnologiya i organizatsiya stroitel'nogo proizvodstva, 2013, no. 2 (3), pp. 44-46. (In Russian). - Network Models with Closed Contours for Organizational-Technological Designing
- UDC 69.009.1

**Diana T. KURASOVA**, e-mail: dianasha@mail.ru

Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2nd Krasnoarmeyskaya ul., 4, St. Petersburg 190005, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. In today's construction business the situation related to the delay of construction often arises. Analysis of domestic and foreign literature has shown that we have a lot of experience in organizing and planning the work, but the timing of the development of project documentation is currently not regulated anywhere. But the construction period also depend on the speed of preparation of project documentation. This article deals with a new approach to planning the construction works based on existing methods of organizational and technological design. The situation at the market of construction of residential real estate is analyzed. The article describes the methods of work with network models with closed contours. Taking into account established principles, provisions and requirements, a graphic conceptual model of the passage work in a closed contour is proposed. Examples of finding the critical path in this contour as well as calculation formulae required for passing each subsequent round in a closed loop are presented. The proposed methodology is aimed at enhancing the system of operative management of construction and facilitates the efficient forecast of its duration.

**Key words**: network models, closed contours, missing deadlines, organizational-technological designing, planning, cycles. - REFERENCES

1. Korotkov D. Ju., Chulkov V. O. The life cycle of real estate. Mir nauki, 2013, no. 1, pp. 23-28. (In Russian).

2. Asaul A. N., Abaev H. S., Molchanov Ju. A. Teorija i praktika upravlenija i razvitija imushhestvennyh kompleksov [Theory and practice of management and development of property complexes]. St. Petersburg, Gumanistika Publ., 2006. 250 p. (In Russian).

3. Zuhovickij S. I., Radchik I. A. Matematicheskie metody setevogo planirovanija [Mathematical methods of network planning]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1965. 296 p. (In Russian).

4. Vilenkin N. Ja. Rjady [The ranks]. Moscow, Prosveshhenie Publ., 1982. 161 p. (In Russian).

5. Bajburin A. H. Kompleksnaja ocenka kachestva vozvedenija grazhdanskih zdanija s uchetom faktorov, vlijajushhih na ih bezopasnost' [Comprehensive assessment of the quality of construction of civil buildings with consideration of factors that affect their safety]. Diss. dokt. tehn. nauk, SPbGASU, 2012. 150 p. (In Russian).

6. Sychev S. A. Vzaimootnoshenija uchastnikov stroitel'stva (upravlenie stroitel'nymi proektami) [The relationship between the participants of construction (construction project management). St. Petersburg, Izd-vo Politehnicheskogo un-ta Publ., 2011, 467 p. (In Russian).

7. Orlov A. I. Organizacionno-jekonomicheskoe modelirovanie. Jekspertnye ocenki [Organizational-economic modelling. Expert evaluation]. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo MGTU im. N. Je. Baumana Publ., 2011. 281 p. (In Russian).

8. Bolotin S. A., Dadar A. H., Ivanov K. V., Kurasova D. T. Model planning risk delayed execution of works in construction based on spatial-temporal analogies. Vestnik grazhdanskih inzhenerov, 2013, no. 6, pp. 69-75. (In Russian).

9. Golovnev S. G, Bajburin A. H., Dmitrin S. P. Indicators of quality technology for accelerated construction of buildings. Izvestija vuzov. Stroitel'stvo, 2002, no. 7, pp. 52-55. (In Russian).

10. Sychev S. A. Accelerated Assembly of attics from unified sandwich panels. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo, 2008, no. 6. pp. 6-9. (In Russian). - TRAINING OF PERSONNEL
- Application Features of Graphic Schemes-Languages when Creating Training Courses on Engineering Disciplines
- UDC 37.026.3/4

**Dmitry A. BECKER**, e-mail: vonbeck@mail.ru

National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. At present, there is a tendency to increase the role of distance learning in the educational process. This requires the use of special training courses which make it possible to improve the quality of learning and reduce the time required for study material. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to apply the form of presentation of educational material focused on high clarity and reliable mastering knowledge. Features of the application of visual graphic languages Dragon and Graf both in multimedia form and in hard copy are considered. On the basis of teaching at the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, the author of the article has formulated principles of the layout of the visual field of educational material. Methods for the application of graphic scheme-languages structures for the best possible filling of the visual field with information are proposed. Variants of inclusion of various text and graphic element - tables, sketches, schemes - in structures of languages Dragon and Graf are presented. It is concluded that in correspondence and distance learning, while enhancing the role of self-development of training material, visual graphical languages particularly perspective for creation of training courses.

**Key words**: schemes-languages Dragon and Graf, multimedia training course, dio-scene, online study mode. - REFERENCES

1. Parondzhanov V. D. Pochemu mudrets pokhozh na obez'yanu [Why wise man like a monkey]. Moscow, RIPOL Classic Publ., 2007. 1152 p. (In Russian).

2. Available at: http://www.vesti.ru/videos?vid=403485&cid=1100 (accessed 24.06.2015). (In Russian).

3. Available at: http://upr.1september.ru/1999/ upr36.htm (accessed 24.06.2015). (In Russian).

4. Chelovecheskiy faktor. Ergonomika v avtomatizirovannykh sistemakh [Human factor. Ergonomics in automated systems. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1992. Vol. 6. 216 p. (In Russian).

5. Available at: http://drakon.su/_media/biblioteka/ drakondescription.pdf (accessed 24.06.2015). (In Russian).

6. Becker D. A. Experience in preparation of a multimedia course, using visual graphical languages DRAGON and GRAF. Promyshlennoe I grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 63-65. (In Russian).

7. Parondzhanov V. D. Druzhelyubnye algoritmy, ponyatnye kazhdomu [Friendly algorithms, clear to everyone]. Moscow, DMK Press Publ., 2010. 464 p. (In Russian).

8. Chachko A. G. Proizvodstvo - yazyk - chelovek. Problemy otobrazheniya informatsii [Manufacture - the language - the man. The problem of displaying information]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1977. 112 p. (In Russian).

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10. Morozov F. M. Skhemy kak sredstvo opisaniya deyatel'nosti (epistemologicheskiy analiz) [Schemes as a means of describing of activity (epistemological analysis)]. Moscow, IFRAN, 2012. 184 p. (In Russian).

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