## Contents of issue № 5 (may) 2015 |

- 70
^{th}ANNIVERSARY OF VICTORY - The Great Feat of Our Generation
**PLATOV V. G.**- ARCHITECTURE OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. TOWN PLANNING
- Justification of Necessity of Economy Class Hotels Location along Moscow Transport Routes and Waterways
- UDC 728.51

**Asmik R. KLOCHKO**, e-mail: asmik1985@mail.ru

**Ljubov' A. SOLODILOVA**, e-mail: usepo@mail.ru

**Aleksej K. KLOCHKO**, e-mail: klo4ko_aleksey@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Topical issues of development of the hotel sector of Moscow that have a direct influence on the socio-economic state of the society are considered. Tourism is a powerful revenue generating industry, which includes a network of economy class hotels. The grapho-analitical and statistical methods for processing the quantitative information helped to identify the need for addition of hotels of economy class "0" to the existing touristic network. On the basis of the study of conditions of roadside hotels along Federal highways, waterways and transport-logistic directions, the ways of optimization of their spatial location within Moscow and a part of the Moscow region, pricing policy as well as the possibility of improving the network infrastructure have been determined. In accordance with the State Program "Housing", the authors suggests some measures for the implementation of floating hotels of economy class "0" on the water area of Moscow, which to some extent will help to relieve some tension for travelers who need a low-budget vacation.

**Key words**: economy class "0" hotels, street-road network, transport - logistic traffic ways, road side hotels, floating hotels. - REFERENCES

1. Motel'. URL: http://www.city-of-hotels.ru/168/ types-of-hotes/motel.html (accessed 18.10.2012).

2. Klochko A. P. To the question about the necessity of the distribution of small hotels (motels) in transport and logistics structural elements of the city of Moscow and the Moscow region. URL: http://rus.neicon.ru:8080/ xmlui/handle/123456789/2380 (accessed 29.04.2015).

3. Elin V. A. Transport and logistic problems of Moscow. Moscow automobile. URL: http://www.vedco.ru/ people/articles/detail.php?ID=1535543 (accessed 11.06.2012)].

4. Dmitriev A. V., Mezhevich M. N. Gorod: problemy razvitija [City: development problems]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1982. 173 p.

5. Transport and logistic problems of Moscow. Custom.Ru.2010. http://www.tamognia.ru (accessed 29.04.2015).

6. Klochko A. P, Solodilova L. A., Klochko A. K. Influence of structural features of Moscow street network oт the road and transport situation. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 11, pp. 66-69.

7. Sostojanie gostinichnoj otrasli g. Moskvy i perspektivy ee razvitija na period do 2016 g. [Condition of Moscow city hotel branch and prospects for further development till 2016]. URL: http://invest.mos.ru/ index.php/2012-02-19-04-59-23/ prograammarazvitia (accessed 28.07.2012).

8. Water hotels construction. URL: http://manor-info.ru/ nedvizhimost-v-moskve/v-moskve-postroyat-200- plavuchich-gostinits.html (accessed 28.07.2012)]

9. The perspectives of hotel nets development in Russia cities. GVA Sawyer, 2011. URL: http://www.gvasawyer.ru/ImgResearch/ 3665_10-05-11.pdf (accessed 28.07.2012).

10. Its river the Lord. URL: http://www.mk.ru/moscow/ article/2013/07/31/892800-svoya-reka-vladyika.html (accessed 29.04.2015).

11. Hotels on the water. URL: http://www.ipodom.ru/ stream/realty/russia/id_73503/ (accessed 29.04.2015).

12. In Russia there will be a chain of floating hotels. URL: http://dom.lenta.ru/news/2010/08/18/ hotels/ (accessed 29.04.2015).

13. Industrial layout of hotels in Moscow. URL: http://invest.mos.ru/upload/medialibrary/ 46a/793_pp_pril.pdf (accessed 29.04.2015). - BUILDING MECHANICS
- Deflections of Perforated Beams with Hexagonal Cutouts: Two Forms Of Solution
- UDC 624.072.014.2

**Alexey I. PRITYKIN**, e-mail: prit_alex@mail.ru

Kaliningrad State Technical University, Sovetskij prospect, 1, Kaliningrad 236040, Russian Federation; Baltic Federal University Immanuel Kant, ul. A. Nevsky, 14, Kaliningrad 236041, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The actual problem of determining deflections of perforated beams is considered in the article. At present time, there are no formulas for calculation of deflections of beams with cutouts in Russian and European building regulations, in spite of necessity of assurance of their demanded rigidity. The reason for this is low accuracy of existent relations. In this work two forms of calculation based on using the theory of composite bars (TCB) are considered: variant of calculation according to A. Rzhanitsyn (with the use of exact integration of a differential equation), and author's variant, based on the integration of the equation in series. The analysis of solutions obtained shows that, in spite of external differences, they are practically identical. The basic obstacle for the practical application of TCB to the calculation of perforated beams is the absence of reliable relation for calculating the stiffness coefficient of the elastic layer formed by web-posts. On the basis of experiments conducted and the analysis of calculations by the finite element method (FEM), the author has obtained the simple relation for estimation of deflections, which makes it possible to calculate perforated beams with different relative width of web-posts. Such beams are widely used in the world civil engineering practice. The high accuracy of the suggested relation has been confirmed by experiments and calculations of perforated beams of different dimensions and perforation parameters by FEM. Obtained relation can be recommended for inclusion in the national building regulations.

**Key words**: deflection, castellated beam, hexagonal openings, theory of composed bars, coefficient of rigidity of elastic layer, method of finite elements. - REFERENCES

1. Ржаницын А. Р. Составные стержни и пластины. М. : Стройиздат, 1986. 316 с.

1. Rzhanitsyn A. R. Sostavnyje sterzni i plastiny [Composed bars and plates]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986. 316 p. (In Russian).

2. Gibson J. E., Jenkins B. S. An investigations of the stress and deflection in castellated beams [Исследование напряжений и прогибов в балках с шестиугольными вырезами]. Structural Engineer, 1957, no. 12, pр. 464-479.

3. Gardner N. J. An investigation into the deflection behavior of castellated beams [Исследование деформаций балок с шестиугольными вырезами]. Transaction of the Engineering Institute of Canada, 1969, vol. 9, no. A.7, pp. 56-64.

4. Hosain M. U., Cheng, V. V. Deflection analysis of expanded open-web steel beams [Анализ прогибов стальных балок с отверстиями в стенке]. Computers and Structural, 1974, vol. 4, no. 2, pр. 327-336.

5. Hrabok M. M., Hosain M. U. Castellated beams deflection using substructuring [Прогибы балок с шестиугольными вырезами с использованием подструктур]. Journal of the Structural Division Proceedings of the ASCE, 1977, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 265-269.

6. Dougherty B. K. Elastic deformation of beams with web openings [Упругая деформация балок с отверстиями в стенке]. Journal of the Structural Division Proceedings of the ASCE, 1980, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 301-312.

7. Redwood R. G., Shrivastava S. C. Design recommendations for steel beams with web holes [Рекомендации по проектированию балок с отверстиями в стенке]. Canadian J. Civ. Eng., 1980, vol. 7, pp. 642-650.

8. Benitez M. A., Darwin D., Donahey R. C. Deflections of composite beams with web openings [Прогибы композитных балок с отверстиями в стенке]. J. Structural Engineering, 1998, vol. 124, no. 10, pp. 1139-1147.

9. Raftoyiannis I. G., Ioannidis G. I. Deflection of Castellated beams under Transverse Loading [Прогибы балок с шестиугольными вырезами при поперечном нагружении]. Steel Structures, 2006, no. 6, pр. 31 - 36. URL: /www.kssc.or.kr /электронная версия/.

10. Холопцев В. В. К расчету балок из разрезных прокатных двутавров по теории составных стержней // Cудостроение и судоремонт: сб. науч. тр. / ОИИМФ. Одесса, 1968. Вып. 2. С. 17-27.

10. Kholoptsev V. V. K rashchetu balok iz razreznyh dvutavrov po teorii sostavnyh sterznej [To calculation of beams, performed from cutted rolled sections, with theory of composed bars]. Cudostroenie i sudoremont: sb. nauch. tr. OIIMF. Odessa, 1968, vyp. 2, pp. 17-27. (In Russian).

11. Ольков Я. И. Балки с перфорированными стенками: руководство по проектированию для студентов. Свердловск, 1972. 34 с.

11. Ol'kov Ya. I. Balki s perforirovannymi stenkami: rukovodstvo po proektirovaniju dlja studentov [Beams with perforated webs: design guidance for students]. Sverdlovsk, 1972. 34 p. (In Russian).

12. Скляднев А. И. Методические указания к расчету и конструированию стальных балок с перфорированными стенками. Липецк, 1981. 22 с.

12. Sklyadnev A. I. Metodicheskie ukazania k raschetu stalnyh balok s perforirovannymi stenkami [Methodical indications to calculation and designing of steel beams with perforated webs]. Lipetsk, 1981. 22 p. (In Russian).

13. Притыкин А. И. Влияние сдвига на деформации перфорированных балок с шестиугольными вырезами // Изв. вузов. Строительство. 2012. № 3. С. 111-118.

13. Pritykin A. I. Vlijanie sdviga na deformazii balok s shestiugolnymi vyrezami [Influence of shear on deformations of castellated beams]. Izv. vuzov. Stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 3, pp. 111-118. (In Russian). - Justification For Requested Accounting Side Forces Generated By Crane Impact On Building Frame
- UDC 624.042.3:621.87

**Tatiana V. ZOLINA**, e-mail: zolinatv@yandex.ru

Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering, ul. Tatischeva, 18, Astrakhan 414000, Russian Federation

**Alexandr R. TUSNIN**, e-mail: valeksol@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoye shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article provides an analysis of the sequence of processing the results of survey and construction of the system of conclusions according to the current method for determining the time required to reach the object's limit state. The authors revealed a shortcoming of the existing algorithm, which consists in the need for constant monitoring changes in the stress-strain state of the frame of an industrial building to meet the requirements of its accident-free operation. The crane loads make the largest contribution to the total value of these changes. The physical nature of forces generated in the course of skew motion of the bridge crane and directed across the track is revealed. These forces are always present, since an adjustment gauge rail tracks when straightening makes it possible to only limit the skew. Recorded results of the field studies indicate the need for considering the effect of these lateral forces at the formation of combinations of loads which impact on the operation of the structural framework of the industrial building, and their values are superior braking forces. To aid in the calculation of the action of lateral forces a comparative analysis of values, obtained according to already known formulas, is made. It was impossible to formulate the unambiguous conclusion concerning the choice of the formula. The authors propose a method for calculating the action of lateral forces in the stochastic positing with setting a modulation factor to achieve values close to the actual. Consolidated algorithm developed in the course of the study is aimed at assessing the value of residual resource of an industrial building in the course of sequential solution of direct, inverse, and forecast problems. This calculation complex makes it possible to determine not only the degree of deterioration of the building at a particular point in time, but also to predict the timing of technical repairs, that removes the need for the ongoing monitoring.

**Key words**: industrial building, bridge crane, stress-strain state, lateral forces, braking trolley, skew movement, crane runways, probabilistic calculation, lifetime, stiffness matrix. - REFERENCES

1. Hoef N. P. Risk and safety considerations at different project phases. Safety, risk and reliability - trends in engineering. International conference, Malta. 2001, pp. 1-8.

2. Gordeev V. N., Lantux-Lyashhenko A. I., Pashinskij V. A., Perelmuter A. V., Pichugin S. F. Nagruzki i vozdejstviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and effects on buildings and structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2011. 528 p. (In Russian).

3. Pichugin C. F. Probabilistic representation of loads acting on structures. Izv. vuzov. Stroitelstvo, 1995, no. 4, pp. 12-18. (In Russian).

4. Brown C. B. Entropy constructed probabilities. Proc. ASCE, 1980, vol. 106, no. EM-4, pp. 633-640.

5. Holicky M., Ostlund L. Vagueness of serviceability requirements. Proc. the International Conference "Design and Assessment of Building Structures". Vol. 2. Prague, 1996, pp. 81-89.

6. Pshenichkina V. A., Belousov A. S., Kuleshova A. N., Churakov A. A. Nadezhnost zdanij kak prostranstvennyx sostavnyx sistem pri sejsmicheskix vozdejstviyax [Reliability of the buildings as the spatial component systems at the seismic influences]. Volgograd, Volggasu Publ., 2010. 180 p. (In Russian).

7. Lin Y. K., Shih T. Y. Column response to horizontal and vertical earthquakes. Engineering mechanics division, ASCE, 1980, vol. 106, no. EM-6, pp. 1099-1109.

8. Zolina T. V., Sadchikov P. N. Modeling the stiffness matrix changes of an industrial building in the process of operation. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2012, no. 8, pp. 19-20. (In Russian).

9. Zolina T. V., Sadchikov P. N. Modeling construction work of an industrial building accounting changes in the stiffness during operation. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no. 10, pp. 69-76. (In Russian).

10. Zolina T. V., Sadchikov P. N. Technique of an estimation a residual resource operation of an industrial building equipped with overhead cranes. Vestnik VolgGASU. Ser. stroitelstvo i arxitektura, 2013, no. 33 (52), pp. 51-57. (In Russian).

11. Kikin A. I. Issledovanie velichin bokovyx sil, voznikayushhix mezhdu mostovym kranom i podkranovymi putyami. Avtoref. dis. kand. texn. nauk [Study variables lateral forces generated between the bridge crane and crane tracks]. Moscow, 1947. 20 p. (In Russian).

12. Konoplya A. S. Silovoe vzaimodejstvie kranovyx xodovyx kolyos s relsami [The force interaction crane running wheels with relsami]. Nadyozhnost i dolgovechnost podyomno-transportnyx mashin. Leningrad, 1968, no. 55, pp. 21-51. (In Russian).

13. Izosimov I. V. Issledovanie bokovyx sil mostovyx kranov cexov metallurgicheskix zavodov. Avtoref. dis. kand. texn. nauk [Research lateral forces overhead cranes shops metallurgical plants]. Moscow, 1969. 20 p. (In Russian).

14. Xoxarin A. X. About side effects of bridge cranes on the former industrial building. Promyshlennoe stroitel'stvo, 1961, no. 9, pp. 55-59. (In Russian).

15. Figarovskij A. V. Issledovaniya gorizontalnyx poperechnyx vozdejstvij mostovyx kranov s gibkim podvesom gruza na konstrukcii promyshlennyx zdanij. Avtoref. dis. kand. texn. nauk [Research poperechnyh horizontal effects of bridge cranes with flexible suspension load on the construction of industrial buildings]. Moscow, 1969. 12 p. (In Russian).

16. Hannover H. Fahrverhalten von Brukkenkranen. Fordern und Heben, 1971, no. 21, s. 13.

17. Lobov N. A. The loads due to the overhead crane poperechnogo and rotational motions of the bridge. Vestnik mashinostroeniya, 1982, no. 6, pp. 31-35. (In Russian).

18. Barshtejn M. F., Zubkov A. N. Issledovanie poperechnyx sil, voznikayushhix pri dvizhenii mostovogo krana [Study transverse forces generated by the movement of the bridge crane]. Dinamika sooruzhenij. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1968. Pp. 4-31. (In Russian).

19. Balashov V. P. Razdelnyj privod v mexanizmax peredvizheniya mostovyx kranov [Separate actuator mechanisms of movement of bridge cranes]. Moscow, ONTI VNIIPTMash Publ., 1959. 120 p. (In Russian).

20. Bilich I. Die Sietenkrafte bei Laufkran - Fahrwerken. Fordern und Heben, 1964, no. 3, s. 163-172.

21. Sobolev V. M. Horizontal load the free movement of the bridge crane during the start-up of mechanical engineering. Vestnik mashinostroeniya, 1975, no. 10, pp. 21-24. (In Russian).

22. Sheffler M., Dressig X., Kurt F. Gruzopodemnye krany [Hoisting cranes]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1981. vol. 2. 287 s. (In Russian).

23. Rajzer V. D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitelnom proektirovanii [Reliability theory in building design]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998. 304 s. (In Russian).

24. Bolotin V. V. Stochastic models of fracture with applications to the reliability theory. Structural safety and reliability. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Elsevier Publ., 1981, pp. 31-56.

25. Ditlevsen O. Reliability against defect generated fracture. Structural mechanics, 1981, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 115-137.

26. Blockley D. I. Reliability theory - incorporating gross errors. Structural safety and reliability. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Elsevier Publ., 1981, pp. 259-282.

27. Bolotin V. V. Prognozirovanie resursa mashin i konstrukcij [Prediction the resource of machines and constructions]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1984. 312 p. (In Russian). - Numerical Solution of Cyclically Symmetric Problem for Calculation of Spherical Shell
- UDC 624.074.4

**Radek F. GABBASOV**, e-mail: fofa@mail.ru

**Nguyen Hoang ANH**, e-mail: ha_misi@yahoo.com

**Elena N. ZHURAVLEVA**, e-mail: dpp@mgsu.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. A spherical shell is widely used in the design of large-span structures. Its advantages are light weight, industrial production, low cost, easy installation. The implementation of the algorithm of calculation of spherical shells significantly simplifies the solution of problems of building science. Generalized equations of the finite difference method are a new trend in the calculation of building constructions. The finite difference method with generalized equations provides additional options for an engineer in comparison with other methods. The proposed algorithm of spherical shell calculation can be used both in engineering practice and in the educational process. Due to its simplicity and sufficient accuracy it can be implemented with a small number of partitions and without using the computer. The numerical algorithm of spherical shells calculation is constructed with the use of generalized equations of the finite difference method. Differential equations of the deformation of the spherical shell are approximated with generalized equations of the finite difference method. A difference approximation of boundary conditions is shown. The calculation of the spherical hinged-fixed shell supported along the whole contour is made with the help of obtained generalized equations of the finite difference method and the convergence of the solution is shown.

**Key words**: finite difference method, method of successive approximations, spherical shell, calculation algorithm, finite element method, generalized equations, building construction. - REFERENCES

1. Malykhina V. S., Frolov N. V. Buildings of pneumatic structures. Promyshlennoye i grazhdanskoye stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 8, pp. 22-24. (In Russian).

2. Bormot Yu. L., Malyy V. I. Calculation of vertical cylindrical tanks using static and linear- spectral theories of earthquake-resistance. Promyshlennoye i grazhdanskoye stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 6, pp. 23-26. (In Russian).

3. Ushakov A. Yu., Vanyushenkov M. G. The study of the influence of the longitudinal compression forces on the stress-strain state esgotos rectangular plate. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Povolzh'ya, 2012, no. 6, pp. 409-412. (In Russian).

4. Trushin S. I., Ivanov S. A. Stability of elastic-plastic cylindrical shells in the proceses of static loading and unloading. Promyshlennoye i grazhdanskoye stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 3, pp. 33-34. (In Russian).

5. Mukhudinov R. F., Shigabutdinov F. G. Effect of local defects on the wave in orthotropic cylindrical shell of finite length with longitudinal impact. Vestnik MGSU, 2013, no. 10, pp. 60-64. (In Russian).

6. Ignat'yev A. V. The basic formulation of finite element method in problems of structural mechanics. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 12, pp. 40-43. (In Russian).

7. Gabbasov R. F., Uvarova N. B. Application of generalized equations of the finite difference method to calculate the plate on an elastic foundation. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no. 4, pp. 102-104. (In Russian). - Factors Influencing on Results of Bearing Capacity Calculation of Eccentrically Compressed Reinforced Concrete Elements
- UDC 624.046.2

**Ivan N. STARISHKO**, e-mail: starishkoi@mail.ru

Vologda State University, ul. Lenina, 15, Vologda 160000, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Disadvantages of methods for calculation, which are the basis of the existing normative documents, are considered by the concrete example. When checking the bearing capacity of eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete elements, these standards proceed out from the equation of equilibrium of longitudinal forces and internal forces. To determine the bearing capacity of the supporting column cross-section, the height of the concrete compressed zone is calculated depending on the value of external load. When checking the condition N < N_{sec}, the conclusion whether the column bears the specified load or not can only be made. However, it is unknown what the maximum load the column can bear, since with a different value of the external load in calculations of the same column we get a different value of the height of the compressed zone and, therefore, a different value of N_{sec}. The bearing capacity of the column is an ultimate load which the column can withstand an unlimited time without destruction. Ways to improve these methods of calculation are suggested; they make it possible to more fully reflect the actual stress-strain state of elements depending on the values of eccentricity of longitudinal forces. The use of calculation results presented in the article opens possibilities for a more economic design of eccentrically compressed concrete elements as well as improves the reliability and durability of their operation.

**Key words**: bearing capacity, eccentrically compressed elements, stress-strain state, methods of calculation, equation of equilibrium. - REFERENCES

1. Starishko I. N. Improving theory of eccentrically compressed concrete elements calculations by solving the equations, that reflect their stress-strain state. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov, 2012, no. 5 (34), pp. 72-81. (In Russian).

2. Primery rascheta zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [Examples of reinforced concrete design], pod red. M. S. Toryanika. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979. 240 p. (In Russian).

3. Starishko I. N. Methods of calculating the bearing capacity of eccentrically compressed concrete elements and suggestions for its improvement. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 3, pp. 107-116. (In Russian).

4. Aleksandrov A. V., Travush V. I., Matveev A. V. Stability design of rod-type structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2002, no. 3, pp. 16-19. (In Russian).

5. Bondarenko V. M., Kolchunov V. I. The concept and directions of development of the theory of structural safety of buildings and structures under the influence of force and environmental factors. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 2, pp. 28-31. (In Russian).

6. Evrokod 2: Proektirovanie zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy. Chast' 1-1. Obshchie pravila i pravila dlya zdaniy. Evropeyskiy komitet po standartizatsii, 2002, 226 p. (In Russian). - BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
- A New Stage of Development of Design, Construction and Reconstruction of Production Buildings and Facilities
- UDC 725.4.011:69.003:658.011.8

**Viktor V. GRANEV**, e-mail: cniipz@cniipz.ru

**Nikolay G. KELASYEV**, e-mail: kelasyev@mail.ru

TSNIIpromzdaniy, Dmitrovskoe shosse, 46, korp. 2, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Ways of the development of industrial enterprises under construction and reconstruction in the light of the adoption of the Federal Law "On Industrial Policy in the Russian Federation" are considered. An analysis of the existing situation in the field of design of enterprises of industrial purposes is made; main tasks in the field of design of production buildings and facilities are set; ways of their solution are considered; for this, it is necessary to define the inter-industrial measures of support with the purpose to create special scientific centers for development of innovative technological and construction solutions of industrial objects. In the course of reconstruction and technical re-equipment of buildings and facilities of enterprises built earlier for placement of works with the use of innovative technologies in them, it is necessary to perform a number of activities such as development of technical and economical evaluation of an object, inspection of constructed buildings and facilities, analysis of intra-shop and site engineering systems, development of recommendations on designing of objects of industrial construction etc. The design and construction of these buildings and facilities is reasonable to conduct on the basis of unification of space-planning and constructive decisions that, in some cases, makes it possible to proceed to construction of inter-branch standard buildings and structures and will give significant savings of cost and labor.

**Key words**: production buildings and facilities, design, construction, reconstruction, innovative technologies, unification of space-planning and constructive decisions, - REFERENCES

1. Travush V. I., Volkov Yu. S. The nebula in the field of standards is an obstacle to creating safe facilities. Stroitel'naya gazeta, 2014, 16 may, p. 3. (In Russian).

2. Granev V. V., Kodysh E. N. Development and updating of normative documents concerning designing and construction of industrial and civil buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 7, pp. 9-12. (In Russian).

3. Zolina T. V. Summary algoritm of calculation of an industrial object for existing load with estimation of a residual resource. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 6, pp. 19-20. (In Russian).

4. Edovina T. 70 billion was replaced by the steward. Kommersant, 2015, 19 march. (In Russian). - Elements of Theory of Development of Concrete Structures with Nonmetallic Composite Reinforcement
- UDC 691.328

**Vladimir I. RIMSHIN**, e-mail: kafedragkk@mgsu.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Sergey I. MERKULOV**, e-mail: mersi.dom@yandex.ru

Kursk State University, ul. Radishcheva, 33, Kursk 305000, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Durability of reinforced concrete structures is largely due to corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement. The problem of improving the durability of reinforced concrete structures can be solved, including the use of non-metallic reinforcement. In this regard, the enhancement and development of methods for design of concrete structures with non-metallic composite reinforcement are relevant. Various variants of using non-metallic composite reinforcement in concrete structures as well as for strengthening operating reinforced concrete structures are considered. Main directions of the development of the calculation theory of structures with composite reinforcement are formulated in the article. It is shown that the main factor ensuring the reliability of the structure is cohesion of the composite bar reinforcement with the concrete. Composite materials are the most widely used for strengthening of structures of buildings and facilities. The main trends of strengthening reinforced concrete structures with composite reinforcement are analyzed; ways of the research in the theory of force resistance of reinforced concrete structures are defined.

**Key words**: composite reinforcement, external reinforcement, strengthening, cohesion, destruction schemes. - REFERENCES

1. Stepanova V. F., Stepanov A. Yu. Non-metallic composite reinforcement for concrete structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 1, pp. 45-47. (In Russian).

2. Madatyan S. A. Development trends of steel and non-metal reinforcing bars for r.c. structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2002, no. 9, pp. 16-19. (In Russian).

3. Saliya G. Sh., Shagin A. L. Betonnye konstruktsii s nemetallicheskim armirovaniem [Concrete structures with non-metallic reinforcement]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2007. 144 p. (In Russian).

4. TR 013-1-04. Tekhnicheskie rekomendatsii po primeneniyu nemetallicheskoy kompozitnoy armatury periodicheskogo profilya v betonnykh konstruktsiyakh [Technical recommendations for use of non-metallic composite reinforcement periodic profile in concrete structures]. Moscow, NIIZhB, 2004. 5 p. (In Russian).

5. Kustikova Yu. O., Rimshin V. I. Stressed-deformed state of basalt-plastic reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 6, pp. 6-9. (In Russian).

6. ACI 440 IR-06. Gunde for the Desing and Construction of Structural Concrete Remforced with FRP Bars American Concrete Institute. 2006. 44 p.

7. FRP remforcement in RC structures. International Federation for Structural Conerete. Fib Bulletin 40. Lausanne, 2007. 147 p.

8. Khozin V. G., Piskunov A. A., Gizdatullin A. R., Kuklin A. N. Grip polymer composite reinforcement with cement concrete. Izvestiya KGASU, 2013, no. 1, pp. 214-216. (In Russian).

9. Shilin A. A., Pshenichnyy V. A., Kartuzov D. V. Vneshnee armirovanie zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy kompozitsionnymi materialami [External reinforcement of concrete structures composite materials]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2007. 180 p. (In Russian).

10. Andrae H.-P., Kusch O., Maier M. Carbon Fibre Composites. A New Generation of Rein for cement and Prestressing Tendons. Trudy 2-oy Vserossiyskoy (Mezhdunarodnoy) konferentsii po betonu i zhelezobetonu "Beton i zhelezobeton - puti razvitiya" [Proc. of 2nd all-Russian (International) conference on concrete and reinforced concrete "Concrete and reinforced concrete - development"] (5-9 sentyabrya 2005, Moscow), vol. 4, pp. 335-546.

11. CNR-DT. 200/2004. Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP. Systems for Strengthening Existing Structures. Rome, 2004. 144 p.

12. Chernyavskiy V. L., Aksel'rod E. Z. Use of coal-plastics to reinforce r.c.c. structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2004, no. 3, pp. 37-38. (In Russian).

13. Banthia N. Fiber Reinforced Polymers in Concrete Construction and Advanced Repair Technologies. URL: http:// www.underwater.pg.gda.pl/didactics/ISPG/ Ceramika/NBanthia15Dec.pdf (accessed: 15.04.2015.)

14. Cardolin A. Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers for Strengthening of Structural Elements. Division of Structural Engineering, Department of Civil and Mining Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden. 2003, 194 p.

15. Hoff G. W. Strong Medicine. Fiber-reinforced Polymer Materials Can Help Cure Many Ills that beset Concrete. Concrete Construction. 2000. July, pp. 40-47.

16. Nanni A. Guides and Specifications for the Use of Composites in Concrete and Masonry Construction in North America. Proc. Int. Workshop "Composites in Construction: A Reality". Capri, Italy, July 20, 2001, pp. 9-18.

17. Rukovodstvo po usileniyu zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy kompozitnymi materialami [Guidance for strengthening concrete structures with composite materials]. GUP NIIZhB. Moscow, Interakva Publ., 2006. 48 p. (In Russian).

18. ODM 218.3.027-2013. Rekomendatsii po primeneniyu tkanevykh kompozitsionnykh materialov pri remonte zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy mostovykh sooruzheniy [Recommendations on the use of fabric composites in the repair of reinforced concrete bridge structures]. Rosavtodor. Moscow, ROSDORNII Publ., 2013. 60 p. (In Russian).

19. Yushin A. V., Morozov V. I. Experimental study of dvuhplitnika-concrete beams, reinforced composite materials by an inclined section. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov, 2014, no. 5 (46), pp. 77-84. (In Russian).

20. Podol'skiy P. P., Mikhub Akhmad.About the research programme bending of concrete members reinforced with different kinds of composite materials. Sbornik nauchnych trudov "Stroitel'stvo-2012". Rostov-na-Donu, 2012, pp. 51-52. (In Russian).

21. Bianco V., Barros J. A.O., Monti G. Bond Model of NSM-FRP Strips in the Context Strengthening of RC Beams. Journal of Structural Engineering, 2003, June, pp. 619-630. - BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
- Experimental Studies of Bearing Capacity of Floor Slabs of Caisson Type
- UDC 69.025.224

**Arkady V. GRANOVSKY**, e-mail: arcgran@list.ru

**Murad R. CHUPANOV**, e-mail: murnii@yandex.ru

TSNIISK named after V. A. Koucherenko, 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Absract**. Results of the experimental study of the strength and deformability of monolithic reinforced concrete slabs of caisson type with sizes of 6_6 m in plan and height of 25 cm are analyzed. Two variants of loading the slabs with the distribution of loading on the half of surface and the entire area of the slab are considered. Data on crack resistance, stiffness and bearing capacity of slabs of caisson type are obtained. Values of the designed loads which can be used for designing are established for the adopted slab design. The character of destruction of slabs is defined; recommendations for reinforcing the zones of their leaning on columns are made. It is established that floor slabs of caisson type manufactured in the "POWER" slab form can be used for construction of residential and public buildings with design load of 12 kPa on the floor. It is necessary, at the stage of development of slab reinforcing, to provide for the installation of reinforcement in the support zone of slabs ensuring the perception of horizontal force and joint operation of the slab with the column as well as to use the concrete with compressive strength of not less than B25

**Key words**: slabs of caisson type, character of deformation, crack resistance; designed load. - REFERENCES

1. Shugaev V. V., Lyudkovskiy A. M. Issledovaniya deformativnogo sostoyaniya rebristykh zhelezobetonnykh obolochek pri deystvii sosredotochennoy nagruzki [Research deformability state ribbed reinforced concrete shells under the action of a concentrated load]. Sbornik trudov NIIZhB "Issledovaniya i raschety prochnosti prostranstvennykh konstruktsiy" [Research and strength calculations of spatial structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1980, pp. 28-47.

2. Malakhova A. N. Monolithic caisson floors of buildings. Vestnik MGSU, 2013, no. 1, pp. 79-86.

3. Plotnikov A. N. Prochnost' i deformativnost' perekrestno-rebristogo perekrytiya s uchetom pereraspredeleniya usiliy [Strength and deformability of the cross-ribbed floors taking into account the redistribution of effort]. Dis. : kand. tekhn. nauk. Moscow, MGSU, 2013. 268 p.

4. Novoe v proektirovanii betonnykh i zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [New in the design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures]. Pod red. A. A. Gvozdeva. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1978. 204 p.

5. Parshin L. F., Belov S. A. The use of systems and cross beams. Beton i zhelezobeton, 1988, no. 2, pp. 7-9.

6. Plotnikov A. N., Ayvazov R. L., Korolev V. P. Konstruirovanie i raschet setchato-rebristykh sbornykh pokrytiy i perekrytiy, opertykh po konturu [Design and calculation of reticulate-ribbed precast pavements and slabs, simply supported on the contour]. Stroitel'nye konstruktsii [Building construction]. Cheboksary, NTO Stroyindustriya Publ., 1993, pp. 21-25.

7. ACI detailing manual - 2004. SP-66 ACI committee 315 publication. Farmington Hill. 2004. 212 p.

8. Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-02) and commentary (ACI 318R-02).

9. TKP EN 1992-1-1-2009 (02250). Eurokod 2. Proektirovanie zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy. Ch. 1-1. Obshchie pravila i pravila dlya zdaniy [Design of reinforced concrete structures. Part 1-1. General rules and rules for buildings]. Ministerstvo arkhitektury i stroitel'stva Respubliki Belarus'. Minsk, 2010.

10. JSCE Guideline for Concrete No. 15. Standard Specifications for Concrete Structures -2007. "Design". JSCE Concrete Committee. Japan, 2010.

11. Anandalli N., Lakshmanan N., Samuel Knight G.M. Simplified Approach for Finite Element Analysis of Laced Reinforced Concrete Beams. ACI Structural journal, 2012, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 91-99.

12. Bailey C. G., Toh W. S., Chan B. M. Simplified and Advanced Analysis of Membrane Action of Concrete Slabs. ACI Structural journal, 2008, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 30-40.

13. Morley C. T. On the yield criterion on an orthogonally reinforced concrete slab element. Journal Mech. Phys. Solids, 1966, vol. 14, pp. 33-47.

14. Mo Y L Hsu, T.T.C. Redistribution of Moments in Spandrel Beams. ACI Structural journal, 1991, vol. 88, pp. 22-30. - TRAINING OF PERSONNEL
- Integral Estimation of a Qualification Rating of Construction Workers
- UDC 69.007.2:658.386

**Dmitriy P. ILCHENKO**, e-mail: dp_ilchenko@mail.ru

Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2-nd Krasnoarmeiskaya ul., 4, St. Petersburg 190005, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The method for estimating the qualification of workers is considered on the example of installers of the 2-nd grade. Qualification assessment, made in the course of selecting the workers and forming the teams, is performed with the help of individually determined for the analyzed position methods of assessment of qualifications which are based on the area of knowledge of a worker and characteristics of works carried out by him. Main criteria intended for evaluating the qualification of specialists and assigning the weighting coefficients to them have been developed. These criteria are proposed to divide into basic and additional. As a result of modeling, qualitative values of characteristics constituting the professional level of the worker, and normalized values of characteristics established by the employer, have been obtained. Simulation of a rating of qualification of workers makes it possible to select specialists on the basis of establishing the threshold value of "normative qualification" with due regard for characteristics of the professional level of the post considered as well as to form working teams.

**Key words**: qualifications, criteria of qualification assessment, integral index of qualification, weighting coefficients. - REFERENCES

1. Velichko O. Expert opinion: Professional standards for replacement qualification guides. The success system, 2012, no. 11. (In Russian). Available at: http://www.irbis-group.ru/content/ view/7647/727/ (accessed 13.04.2014).

2. Denis Z. On the development of national qualification standards in the Russian Federation. Work abroad, 2011, no. 2. (In Russian). Available at: http://trudzr.ru/ 2011/02/zibarev-db-ken- zamestitel-nachal-nika-upravleniya-po-razvitiyu- trudovogo-potenciala-nii-tss.html (accessed 05.05.2014).

3. Pankina G. V., Babykin S. V., Pankin D. V. Analysis of professional standards. Kompetentnost', 2010, no. 9-10, pp. 14. (In Russian).

4. Pryanishnikova O. D., Lejbovich А. N. Professional standards: an overview of international experience. Promyshlennik Rossii, 2008, no. 3, pp. 38. (In Russian).

5. ETKS № 3, § 188. Montazhnik po montazhu stal'nykh i zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy: [Elektronnyy resurs]. URL: http://alletks.ru/etks3/page163.html (accessed 10.07.2014). (In Russian). - INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN CONSTRUCTION
- Monitoring Of High-Rise Buildings Deformations With The Use Of Global Navigation Satellite Systems
- UDC 528.482:721.011.27

**Alexey L. FIALKOVSKII**, e-mail: a.fialkovskii@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, Gorokhovsky pereulok, 4, Moscow 105064, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Problems of the deformation monitoring of high-rise buildings using Global Navigation Satellite Systems are discussed in the article. Data on the deformation monitoring of the Shukhov tower in Moscow and results of their processing as static observations and with the use of Fourier analysis in kinematic mode are presented. Both methods make it possible to discover the displacements of construction, but their main disadvantage is low detailing of the identified displacements. Graphs of changes in the position of the top of the Shukhov tower obtained as a result of data processing by both methods are presented in the article. The analysis of graphs leads to the conclusion that the main cause of deformation is uneven solar heating of the construction. During the study period, the upper part of the tower was moving within the limits of 5 cm over a day. The diurnal changes in the tower's height were not more than 4 cm. New methods for data processing with the use of the overlay intervals technique, the main advantage of which is a more detailed description of the construction displacement are presented. The experimental equipment which makes it possible to simulate the displacement of the satellite receiver has been developed for the study.

**Key words**: deformation monitoring, high-rise constructions, Shukhov tower, solar heating effect, global navigation satellite systems, processing of satellite measurements, Fourier analysis, experimental equipment. - REFERENCES

1. URL: www.geodinamika.ru (accessed 21.02.2015).

2. Osipov V. I., Medvedev O. P. Moskva. Geologiya i gorod [Moscow. Geology and city]. Moscow, Moskovskie uchebniki i Kartolitografiya Publ., 1997. 400 p. (In Russian).

3. Fyalkovskiy A. L. Creating of modern combined networks to assess the deformation danger of urban agglomerations and industrial arias. Izvestiya vuzov. Geodeziya i aerofotos'emka, 2013, no. 6, pp. 16-19. (In Russian).

4. Gur'ev V. V., Dorofeev V. M. Safety provision for supporting structures of high-rise buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2004, no. 12, pp. 30-32. (In Russian).

5. Ting-Hua Yi, Hong-Nan Li, Ming Gu. Recent research and applications of GPS-based monitoring technology for high-rise structures. Structural control and health monitoring, 2013, vol. 20, iss. 5, pp. 649-670.

6. Hyo Seon Park, Hong Gyoo Sohn, Ill Soo Kim, Jae Hwan Park. Application of GPS to monitoring of wind-induced responses of high-rise buildings. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, 2008, vol. 17, iss. 1, pp. 117-132.

7. Breuer P., Chmielewski T., Gorski P., Konopka E., Tarczynski L. The Stuttgart TV Tower - displacement of the top caused by the effects of sun and wind. Engineering Structures 30 (2008), pp. 2771-2781.

8. Ovcharenko A. V., Belikov V. T., Balandin D. V., Ugryumov I. A., Kozlov Yu. E., Khil'manovich V. M., Neznaeva E. L., Komshilov V. I. Integrated GNSS monitoring of deformations of tower-shaped high-rise structures. Inzhenernye izyskaniya, 2012, no. 7, pp. 38-45. (In Russian).

9. Biktashev M. D. Bashennye sooruzheniya. Geodezicheskiy analiz osadki, krena i obshchey ustoychivosti polozheniya. [Tower-shaped buildings. Geodesic analysis of outflanking, careen and general stability of the situation]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2006. 376 p. (In Russian).

10. Shekhovtsov G. A., Shekhovtsova R. P. Sovremennye geodezicheskie metody opredeleniya deformatsiy inzhenernykh sooruzheniy [Recent geodetic methods for determining the deformations of engineering structures]. Nizhniy Novgorod, NNGASU Publ., 2009. 156 p. (In Russian).

11. Lapshin A. Yu., Staroverov S. V., Fyalkovskiy A. L. Issledovanie sutochnogo dvizheniya Shukhovskoy bashni sputnikovymi metodami. [Research of the daily motion of the Shukhov Tower with satellite methods.] Devyataya obshcherossiyskaya konferentsiya "Perspektivy razvitiya inzhenernykh izyskaniy v stroitel'stve v Rossiyskoy Federatsii". Moscow, 2013, pp. 127-130. (In Russian).

12. Reznik B. E. Continuous geodetic measurements of deformations of constructions of operated buildings. Geoprofi, 2008, no. 4, pp. 4-10. (In Russian).

13. URL: www.rp5.ru (accessed 21.02.2015).

14. Fyalkovskiy A. L. Osobennosti obrabotki rezul'tatov sputnikovykh nablyudeniy za sooruzheniyami, imeyushchimi sutochnyy khod. [Processing features of satellite observations of the constructions, which have diurnal variation.] Materialy desyatoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii molodykh spetsialistov "Inzhenernye izyskaniya v stroitel'stve". Moscow, PNIIIS Publ., 2014, pp. 125-130.

15. Antonovich K. M. Ispol'zovanie sputnikovykh radionavigatsionnykh sistem v geodezii [The use of satellite navigation systems in geodesy]. Moscow, Kartgeotsentr Publ., 2006. Vol. 2. 360 p. - DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ROADS, AIRFIELDS
- Investigation of Deformations of Rigid Surfaces of Roads and Airfields at Presence of Repair Inserts in Their Constructions
- UDC. 625.848.717

**Maksim D. SULADZE**, e-mail: suladzemd@gmail.com

Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University (MADI), Leningradskiy prosp., 64, Moscow 125319, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. In the process of operation, the rigid airfield and road pavements are subjected to various destructions (cracks, spalling, scaling etc.). The most common way to resolve such destruction is repair inserts. The aim of the article is to study the deformed state and unity of inserts operation with the rest part of the rigid airfield pavement as well as to select optimal sizes of these inserts in terms of their thickness. By computer simulation, the operation of the structure with an insert of variable size and thickness has been studied at different positions of the load. The calculation of the model was made by the finite element method in the software environment "Basis +". The change in the stress-strain state of the pavement was selected as a main criterion of its state. As a result of the calculation, the values of structure's deflections were obtained and their graphs were plotted. The analysis of data obtained made it possible to identify areas in the structure where there was no contact between the insert and slab (a gap between them), to select optimal parameters of the insert for its joint operation with the original structure. The need for making contact between the insert and slab as well as the joint between them is theoretically substantiated. The efficiency of the selected criterion for solving the problems considered is confirmed. The further study of this issue with the introduction of results obtained in normative literature on the content of airfields and roads coatings is necessary.

**Key words**: rigid artificial pavements of roads and airfields, stress-strain state, repair insert, deformation, calculation model. - REFERENCES

1. Bocharova A. Y., Saburenkova V. A. Integrated studies airfield pavements. Aktual'nye voprosy proektirovaniya, stroitel'stva i ekspluatatsii zdaniy, sooruzheniy aeroportov: sb. tr. nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 80-letiyu FGUP GPI i NII GA "Aeroproekt" [Current issues of design, construction and operation of buildings, structures airports: the collection of works of participants of scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 80th anniversary of FSUE GPI and NII GA "Aeroproject"]. Moscow, ZAO "Svetlitsa" Publ., 2014, pp. 157-167. (In Russian).

2. Fedulov V. K., Artemova L.Yu. About defects concrete pavements. Informavtodor, 2009, no. 1. С. 5-9. (In Russian).

3. Van Dam T., Taylor P., Fick G. Sustainable concrete pavements: a manual of practice. Institute for Transportation, Iowa State University research park, 2012.

4. Berezin V. I., Vinogradov A. P., Ivanov V. N., Ignatenko E. N. [et al.]. Upravlenie sostoyaniem zhestkih pokryitiy aerodromov [Managed the state of hard coatings airfields]. Moscow, Vozdushnyy transport Publ., 2010. 124 p. (In Russian).

5. Leshhickaja T. P., Popov V. A. Sovremennye metody remonta ajerodromnyh pokrytij [Modern methods of repair of airfield pavements]. Moscow, MADI (GTU) Publ., 1999. 131 p. (In Russian).

6. Frentress D.P., Harrington D. Partial-depth repairs for concrete pavements. CP Road Map, 2011, no. 5, pp. 7-11.

7. Kulchitskiy V. A., Makagonov V. A., Vasilev N. B., Chekov A. N., Romashkov N. I. Aerodromnye pokryitiya. Sovremennyy vzglyad [Airfield pavements. The modern view]. Moscow, Fizmatlit Publ., 2002. 528 p. (In Russian).

8. Tatarinov V. V. About calculation of hard coatings aerodromes. Ajeroporty progressivnye tehnologii, 2012, no. 2(55), pp. 24-27. (In Russian).

9. Vasil'ev N. B., Bojko V. N., Usanov S. A. The modern approach to the construction of airfield concrete slabs. Ajeroporty. Рrogressivnye tehnologii, 2007, no. 2, pp. 16-18. (In Russian).

10. Soderqvist J. Design of concrete pavements- design criteria for plain and lean concrete. Licentiate Thesis in Structural Design and Bridges, Stockholm, Sweden, 2006. 140 p.

11. Fedulov V. K., Artemova L.Yu., Suladze M. D. Investigation of the influence of repair inserts on change of stress state of rigid artificial pavements of roads and airfields. Promyishlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2015, no. 2, pp. 59-62. (In Russian).

12. Artemova L. Yu., Efimova E. S., Fedulov S. A., Fedulov V. K. Bend of a two-layer beam with a crack on the elastic basis. Nauka i tehnika v dorozhnoy otrasli, 2010, no. 3, pp. 12-13. (In Russian).

13. Fedulov V. K. Violation of contact between the layers of the two-layer pavement. Ajeroporty. Progressivnye tehnologii, 2014, no. 1-2, pp. 58-60. (In Russian).

14. Popov V. A. Dolgovechnost ekspluatiruemyih betonnyih pokryitiy aerodromov.[Durability of concrete pavement operated airfields]. Moscow, Tehpoligraftsentr Publ., 2007. 92 p. (In Russian).

15. Vinogradov A. P., Ivanov V. N., Kozlov G. N., Kozlov L. N. [et al.]. Prodlenie ekspluatatsionnogo resursa pokryitiy avtomobilnyih dorog i aerodromov [Extension of the service life roads and airfields pavements]. Moscow, Irmast-Holding Publ., 2001. (In Russian).