## Contents of issue № 3 (march) 2015 |

- STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
- Some Directions of Development of Survivability Theory of Structural Systems of Buildings and Structures
- UDC 69.057.122"401.7"(083.75)

**Vladimir I. TRAVUSН**, e-mail: travush@mail.ru, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, ul. Bol'shaya Dmitrovka, 24, Moscow 107031, Russian Federation

**Vitaliy I. KOLCHUNOV**, e-mail: yz_swsu@mail.ru, Nataliya V. KLYUEVA, e-mal: klynavit@yandex.ru

Southwest State University, ul. 50 let Oktyabrya, 94, Kursk 305040, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Some areas of research in the field of mechanical safety and survivability of buildings and structures under various loads and impacts, including emergency design situations, are considered. Results of the analysis of theoretical and experimental research, the regulatory framework state, proposals for the protection of structural systems of buildings and structures from progressive collapse, the experience in the application of actualized regulatory documents in the design practice, as well as possible areas of research and development of the survivability theory of buildings and structures are presented. It is shown that for the actualization of new regulatory documents designed to ensure the implementation of the Federal law on the safety of buildings and structures it will be necessary not only to clarify the new terminology which describes requirements and technical design rules, but also to include into them sufficiently substantiated and confirmed experimentally new sections on safety and survivability of buildings and constructions in terms of design and beyond design impacts with the quantification of unacceptable risk.

**Key words**: survivability of structures, theory, emergency situations, regulatory framework, experimental research. - REFERENCES

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6. Geniev G. A., Kolchunov V. I., Klyueva N. V. [et al.]. Prochnost' i deformativnost' zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy pri zaproektnykh vozdeystviyakh [Strength and deformability of reinforced concrete structures severe impacts]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004. 216 p. (In Russian).

7. Bondarenko V. M. Corrosion damage as the cause of the avalanche destruction of reinforced concrete structures. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2009, no. 5, pp. 13-17. (In Russian).

8. Bondarenko V. M., Kolchunov V. I. Exposure survivability concrete. Izvestiya vuzov, Stroitel'stvo, 2007, no. 5, pp. 4-8. (In Russian).

9. Klyueva N. V., Fedorov V. S. To analyze the survivability of a sudden damaged frame systems. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2006, no. 3, pp. 7-13. (In Russian).

10. Klyueva N. V, Vetrova O. A. To assess the survivability of reinforced concrete frame-truss structural systems with a sudden unanticipated impacts. Beton i zhelezobeton, 2008, no. 4, pp. 56-57. (In Russian).

11. Klyueva N. V., Androsova N. B. To build criteria survivability of corrosion - damaged reinforced concrete structural systems. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2009, no. 1, pp. 29-34. (In Russian).

12. Klyueva N. V. Proposals for calculating the survivability of corrosion - damaged reinforced concrete structures. Beton i zhelezobeton, 2008, no. 3, pp. 22-26. (In Russian).

13. Kolchunov V. I., Kudrina D. V. Theoretical and experimental studies of reinforced concrete frame members beyond the state. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2010, no. 3, pp. 14-17. (In Russian).

14. Travush V. I. Security and stability in the priority directions of development of Russia. Academia, 2006, no. 2, pp. 9-12. (In Russian).

15. Rastorguev B. S., Plotnikov A. I. Ensuring the survivability of civil buildings with special effects. Tematicheskaya nauch.-prakt. konf. "Gorodskoy stroitel'nyy kompleks i bezopasnost' zhizneobespecheniya grazhdan" [Thematic scientific-practical conference "Urban construction sector and the livelihood security of citizens"]. Sb. dokladov. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2005. Part. 1, pp. 152-165. (In Russian).

16. Rastorguev B. S., Plotnikov A. I. Calculation of load-bearing structures of monolithic reinforced concrete buildings for the progressive destruction taking into account dynamic effects. Sb. nauch. tr. Instituta stroitel'stva i arkhitektury MGSU. Moscow, 2008, pp. 65-72. (In Russian).

17. Almazov V. O., Kkhoy Kao Zuy. Dinamika progressiruyushchego razrusheniya monolitnykh mnogoetazhnykh karkasov [The dynamics of the progressive destruction of monolithic multi-storey frames]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2013. 128 p. (In Russian).

18. Almazov V. O. Problems to progressive destruction. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya, 2014, no. 6, pp. 3-10. (In Russian).

19. Almazov V. O. Resistance to progressive destruction: calculations and constructive activities. Vestnik TsNIISK im. V. A. Kucherenko, 2009, no. 1 (XXVI), pp. 179- 193. (In Russian).

20. Tamrazyan A. G. Resource survivability is the main criterion of high-rise buildings. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 1, pp. 15-18. (In Russian).

21. Tamrazyan A. G., Mekhralizadekh A. Dynamic analysis of multi-storey buildings with respect to time local damage to load-bearing structures in the calculation on the progressive collapse. Beton i zhelezobeton - vzglyad v budushchee: nauch. tr. III Vserossiyskoy (II Mezhdunarodnoy) konferentsii po betonu i zhelezobetonu (Moscow, 12-16 maya 2014 g.) [Concrete and reinforced concrete - a look into the future: science. Tr. III all-Russian (second International) conference on concrete and reinforced concrete]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2014, vol. 2, pp. 142-149. (In Russian).

22. Geniev G. A., Kolchunov V. I., Klyueva N. V., Nikulin A. I., Pyatikrestovskiy K. P. Prochnost' i deformativnost' zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy pri zaproektnykh vozdeystviyakh [Strength and deformability of reinforced concrete structures severe impacts]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004. 216 p. (In Russian).

23. Geniev G. A. The principle of equigradientness and applied to optimization problems of stability of core systems. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 1979, no. 6, pp. 8-13. (In Russian).

24. Klyueva N. V., Shuvalov K. A. Experimental studies of the survivability of prestressed concrete girder systems. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya, 2012, no. 5, pp. 13-22. (In Russian).

25. Kolchunov V. I., Prasolov N. O., Kozharinova L. V. Experimental and theoretical studies of the survivability of reinforced concrete frames with buckling of a single element. Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 3, pp. 109-115. (In Russian).

26. Lyubomirskiy N. V., Rodin S. V., Koren'kov P. A., Abselyamov R. S. Analysis of the risk of progressive collapse of the monolithic reinforced concrete frame 19-storey residential buildings in Evpatoria. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya, 2014, no. 5, pp. 38-45. (In Russian).

27. Kolchunov V. I., Klyueva N. V., Androsova N. B., Bukhtiyarova A. S. Zhivuchest' zdaniy i sooruzheniy pri zaproektnykh vozdeystviyakh [The durability of buildings and constructions severe impacts]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2014. 208 p. (In Russian). - Methodology Describing the Chart of Concrete with Varying Levels of Compression Stresses and Partial Unloading
- UDC 624.012.4.042.3

**Nikolay I. KARPENKO**, e-mail: niisf@niisf.ru Research Institute of building physics, Lokomotivnyy pr., 21, Moscow 127238, Russian Federation

**Valery A. ERYSHEV**, e-mail: gsx@tltsu.ru, Ekaterina V. LATYSHEVA, e-mail: p-tata@mail.ru Togliatti State University, ul. Belorusskaya, 14, Togliatti 445667, Russian Federation

**Stanislav A. KOKAREV**, Astrakhan Civil Engineering Institute, ul. Tatischeva, 18, Astrakhan 414056, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Repeatedly re-loads with variable levels of maximum and minimum compression stresses in cycles with partial unloading are considered. Residual strains during unloading and deformations on the tops of charts with increasing loads in cycles are determined in increments of stress and strain with the use of the radial method. The method for calculation of secant modules of strain in periods of unloading and re-loading is presented. Analytical dependences for the determination of the values of strain at the stages of concrete deformation under complex conditions of loading have been developed. The basis of the proposed methodology is a diagram of concrete strain with compressive stresses under the static loading up to fracture, the algorithm of this diagram is described in the normative literature. A load branch of the first cycle coincides with this original chart. Branches of unloading and re-loading are built in the new coordinate systems, the beginning of which is fixed at the vertices of maximum and minimum stress values in cycles. General deformations of concrete in the original coordinate system are determined by the summation of strain increments in every cycle calculated in new coordinate systems. This methodology makes it possible to determine the number of stress cycles both up to the stabilization of strains at low levels and the fracture of concrete at high levels of stress.

**Key words**: strain, stress, radiation method, re-loads, partial unloading, secant modulus. - REFERENCES

1. Karpenko N. I. Obshchie modeli mekhaniki zhelezobetona [General models of the mechanics of reinforced concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1996. 412 p. (In Russian).

2. Eryshev V. A., Toshin D. S. Chart deformation of concrete under nemnogolyudny repeated loading. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura, 2005, no. 10, pp. 109-114. (In Russian).

3. Karpenko N. I., Eryshev V. A., Latysheva E. V. The charting of concrete deformation repeated load compression at constant levels of stress. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2013, no. 6, pp. 48-52. (In Russian).

4. Karpenko N. I., Eryshev V. A., Latysheva E. V. A method of constructing charts of concrete deformation repeated load compression with variable levels of stress. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 7, pp. 9-13. (In Russian).

5. Karpenko N. I., Eryshev V. A., Latysheva E. V. The method of calculation of parameters of concrete deformation during unloading from compression stress. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 3, pp. 168-178. (In Russian).

6. Eryshev V. A. Metodika rascheta deformatsiy betona pri slozhnykh rezhimakh nagruzheniya [The method of calculation of the deformation of concrete under complex loading regimes]. Tolyatti, TGU Publ., 2014. 130 p. (In Russian).

7. Horishina T. [et al.]. Study on characteristics of concrete under cyclic stresses. Research Dept. Taisei Construction Co., 1996. - About Development of Discrete-Continual Approach to Numerical Modeling of Load-Bearing Structures of High-Rise Buildings
- UDC 624.04:539.3:721.011.27

**Pavel A. AKIMOV**, e-mail: pavel.akimov@gmail.com

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe Shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article is devoted to the actual mathematical aspects of the realization of the discrete-continual approach to the design of high-rise buildings which are considered within the frame of solution of the global goal to expand the field of application of analytical and semi-analytical approaches. At certain stage, this discrete-continual approach is reduced to the solution of multi-point boundary problems for the systems of ordinary differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients. The correct, universal, computationally stable and fully adapted to the computer realization method of exact analytical solution of multi-point boundary problems of this type is proposed. The construction of the so-called partial Jordan decomposition of the matrix of system coefficients lies at the basis of method using the apparatus of the theory of generalized functions. Thus, the discrete-continual approach makes it possible to obtain solutions in the analytical form, which contributes to the improvement of the quality of studies of objects considered. This approach is especially efficient in the zones of edge effect, where the part of components of the solution are rapidly changing functions, rate of change of which may not always be adequately taken into account with traditional numerical (mesh) methods.

**Key words**: discrete-continual approach, numerical simulation, high-rise buildings, multipoint boundary problem, system of ordinary differential equations, analytical solution. - REFERENCES

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6. Senin N. I., Akimov P. A. Some Mathematical Foundations of Linear Structural Analysis of Three-Dimensional Load-Bearing Systems of Multi-Storey Buildings with the Use of Discrete-Continual Model. Vestnik MGSU, 2011, no. 2, vol. 1, pp. 44-50. (In Russian).

7. Bathe K. J. Advances in the multiphysics analysis of structures [О достижениях о области мультифизического моделирования конструкций]. Chapter 1 in Computational Methods for Engineering Science, B.H.V. Topping (Eds), Saxe-Coburg Publications, Stirlingshire, U.K., 2012.

8. Bathe K. J. Frontiers in finite element procedures & applications [Перспективы развития метода конечных элементов: алгоритмы и приложения]. Chapter 1 in Computational Methods for Engineering Technology, B.H.V. Topping and P. Ivаnyi (Eds), Saxe-Coburg Publications, Stirlingshire, U.K., 2014.

9. Bathe K. J. The Finite Element Method [Метод конечных элементов]. Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering, B. Wah (Eds.), J. Wiley and Sons, New-York, 2009, pp. 1253-1264.

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11. Hughes T. J. R. The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis [Метод конечных элементов: линейные статические и динамические расчеты]. New-York. Dover Civil and Mechanical Engineering. Dover Publications, 2000. 704 p.

12. Zienkiewicz O. C., Taylor R. L. The Finite Element Method Set [Метод конечных элементов]. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005. 1872 p.

13. Akimov P. A., Mozgaleva M. L. Mnogourovnevye diskretnye i diskretno-kontinual'nye metody lokal'nogo rascheta stroitel'nyh konstruktsiy [Multilevel Discrete and Discrete-Continual Methods of Local Structural Analysis]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2014. 628 p. (In Russian).

14. Akimov P. A., Belostoskiy A. M., Mozgaleva M. L., Mojtaba Aslami, Negrozov O. A. Correct Multilevel Discrete-Continual Finite Element Method of Structural Analysis [Корректный многоуровневый дискретно-континуальный метод конечных элементов для расчета строительных конструкций]. Advanced Materials Research. 2014, vol. 1040, pp. 664-669.

15. Akimov P. A., Sidorov V. N. Correct Method of Analytical Solution of Multipoint Boundary Problems of Structural Analysis for Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations with Piecewise Constant Coefficients [Корректный метод аналитического решения многоточечных краевых задач расчета строительных конструкций для систем обыкновенных дифференциальных уравнений с кусочно-постоянными коэффициентами]. Advanced Materials Research, 2011, vol. 250- 253, pp. 3652-3655.

16. Shilov G. E. Matematicheskiy analiz. Vtoroy spetsial'nyj kurs [Mathematical Analysis. The Second Special Course]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1965. 327 p. (In Russian).

17. Teodorescu P., Kecs W. W. Antonela T. Distribution Theory: With Applications in Engineering and Physics [Теория обобщенных функций с приложениями в инженерных науках и физике]. New-York. John Wiley & Sons, 2013. 394 p.

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20. Demmel' Dzh. Vychislitel'naya lineynaya algebra. Teoriya i prilozheniya [Computational Linear Algebra. Theory and Applications]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 2001. 430 p. (In Russian). - Methods for Calculating the Deflection of Composite Reinforced Concrete Structures
- UDC 624.012.45

**Victor S. FEDOROV**, e-mail: fvs_skzs@mail.ru,**Hamit Z. BASHIROV**

Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, ul. Obraztsova, 9, str. 9, Moscow 127994, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The method for calculating the deflection of eccentric compressed reinforced concrete composite structures, which is based on the special algorithm taking into account the redistribution of power flows and equivalent stiffness for each rod, is considered. The dependence for determining the curvature of reinforced concrete composite structures with cracks has been obtained. The deflection of reinforced concrete composite structures with account of cracks is calculated according to the curvature value with the use of the formula of structural mechanics. Numerical apparatus takes into account the effect of discontinuities and ductility of the seam between the different concretes, concrete and reinforcement in the form of a conditional concentrated shear. This method makes it possible to take into account the inelastic resistance due to determining the stiffness parameters through the curvature at portions with cracks as well as when determining the shifting efforts in the seam, which are expressed through their limiting values. The developed methodology is based on the iterative process that excludes the bulky algebraization of formulas and noticeably moves the curvature and deflections of reinforced concrete composite structures closer to the experimental values.

**Key words**: reinforced concrete, eccentric loading, stiffness, deformations, method of calculation. - REFERENCES

1. Bondarenko V. M., Shagin A. L. Raschet effektivnykh mnogokomponentnykh konstruktsiy [The calculation of the effective multicomponent structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987. 175 p. (In Russian).

2. Gorynin G. L., Nemirovskiy Yu. V. Methods of calculation of the basic and border States of the layered structures in the spatial setting. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo, 2006, no. 1, pp. 4-13. (In Russian).

3. Merkulov S. I., Povetkin M. S. Study of strengthened flexural reinforced concrete structures under load. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2009, no. 8, pp. 45-47. (In Russian).

4. Kolchunov V. I. The definition of the given shear modulus of the contact zone composite concrete elements. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 2011, no. 3, pp. 12-16. (In Russian).

5. Bujnak J., Korol E. A., Latushkin V. E. Design calculation model of three-layer composite reinforce concrete structures. Komunikacie, 2012, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 101-105.

6. Murashkin G. V., Mordovskiy S. S. The application of the deformation curve for calculation of bearing capacity of eccentrically compressed concrete elements. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 3, pp. 38-40. (In Russian).

7. Bashirov Kh. Z., Fedorov V. S., Kazakov D. V. Proposals for the development of methods for calculating the deformations of the composite eccentrically compressed elements. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya, 2012, no. 2, pp. 85-88. (In Russian). - Calculation of Circular Plates with Constant Stiffness for Local Loads
- UDC 624.073.112

**Radek F. GABBASOV**, e-mail: fofa@mail.ru

**Tuan Anh HOANG**, e-mail: hoangtuananhk30a1@gmail.com

**Natalia B. UVAROVA**, e-mail: nbuvarova@yandex.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Olga N. LIPATOVA**, Vinfild, Krasnopresnenskaya nab., 8, str. 1, Moscow 123317, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The calculation of a thin flexural plate of constant stiffness fixed along the contour for local load effect is presented. To build a numerical solution, the differential equations of plate bending in polar coordinates are approximated by generalized equations of finite difference method. The algorithm makes it possible to take into account the finite discontinuities of the required function, its first-order derivative and the right side of the differential equation without involving contour points. The calculation is done at different number of partitioning and shows the sufficient accuracy of the solution. When reducing the area of the local load an approximate solution is obtained as at loading with concentrated force. The developed algorithm of calculation can be used to build surfaces of influence and thereby to solve the problem of calculating the plate for arbitrary load.

**Key words**: circular plate, differential equations, numerical solution, generalized equations of finite differences method, approximation, boundary conditions, local load. - REFERENCES

1. Gabbasov R. F., Gabbasov A. R., Filatov V. V. Chislennoe postroenie razryvnykh resheniy zadach stroitel'noy mekhaniki [Numerical construction of discontinuous solutions of the problems of structural mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2008. 288 р. (In Russian).

2. Gabbasov R. F., Uvarova N. B. Application of generalized equations finite difference method to the calculation of plates on elastic foundation. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no. 4, рp. 32-38. (In Russian).

3. Gabbasov R. F., Hoang Tuan Anh, Chikunov M. A. Generalized equations finite difference method in calculating a thin flexible plates on the dynamic load. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 9, рp. 32-38. (In Russian).

4. Gabbasov R. F., Hoang Tuan Anh, Nguyen Hoang Anh. Comparison of results of calculation of thin flexible slabs with the use of generalized equations of finite-difference method (FDM) and method of successive approximations (MSA). Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 1. р. 62-64. (In Russian).

5. Gabbasov R. F., Hoang Tuan Anh. Calculation of bent plates of average thickness with the use of generalized equations of finite difference method. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 10. pр. 52-54. (In Russian).

6. Timoshenko S. P., Voinovski-Krieger S. Plastinki i obolochki [Plates and shells]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1966. 635 р. (In Russian).

7. Koreneva E. B. Analiticheskie metody rascheta plastin peremennoy tolshchiny i ikh prakticheskie prilozheniya [Analytical methods of calculation of plates of variable thickness and their practical application]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009. 240 р. (In Russian).

8. Kovalenko A. D. Kruglye plastiny peremennoy tolshchiny [Circular plates of variable thickness]. Moscow, Fizmatgiz Publ., 1959. 294 р. (In Russian).

9. Maslennikov A. M. Raschet stroitelnykh konstruktsiy chislennymi metodami [Calculation of construction structures numerical methods]. Leningrad, LGU Publ., 1987. 225 р. (In Russian).

10. Ogibalov P. M., Koltunov M. A. Obolochki i plastiny [Shell and plate]. Moscow, Moscow St. Univ. Publ., 1969. 695 р. (In Russian). - BUILDING STRUCTURES, BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
- Calculation of Eccentrically Compressed Reinforced Concrete Elements under Dynamic Loading in Conditions of Fire Effect
- UDC 624.012.45.042.5

**Ashot G. TAMRAZYAN**, e-mail: tamrazian@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. A method for dynamic analysis of eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete elements under fire effects is considered. Results of the experimental study of reinforced concrete elements under dynamic loading in conditions of fire effect are presented; dependences of the coefficient of dynamic strengthening of elements at temperatures up to 900 °C have been obtained. Main scenarios, which can occur in high-rise buildings in the course of progressing destruction, have been developed. An analytic calculation of changes in the bearing capacity of an eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete column under various thermal-power impacts is made. The numerical analysis of a multi- storey reinforced concrete frame was performed in the software package Sap 200 with due regard for changes in strength and strain properties of bearing elements under various temperature effects with the help of the plastic hinge function.

**Key words**: reinforced concrete column, eccentric compression, dynamic strength, fire effects. - REFERENCES

1. Расторгуев Б. С., Мутока К. Н. Деформирование конструкций перекрытий каркасных зданий после внезапного разрушения одной колонны // Сейсмостойкое строительство. Безопасность сооружений. 2006. № 1. С. 12-15.

1. Rastorguev B. S., Mutoka K. N. Deformation structures overlaps frame buildings after the sudden destruction of one column. Sejsmostojkoe stroitel'stvo, Bezopasnost' sooruzhenij, 2006, no. 1, pp. 12-15. (In Russian).

2. Тамразян А. Г., Аветисян Л. А. Экспериментальные исследования внецентренно сжатых железобетонных элементов при кратковременных динамических нагружениях в условиях огневых воздействий // Промышленное и гражданское строительство. 2014. № 4. С. 24-28.

2. Tamrazyan A. G., Avetisyan L. A. Experimental research in eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete elements during short-term dynamic loadings under fire conditions. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 4, pp. 24-28. (In Russian).

3. Tamrazyan A. Reduce the impact of dynamic strength of concrete under fire conditions on bearing capacity of reinforced concrete columns // ICSMIM 2013. 2nd International conference on sensors, measurement and intelligent materials. Guangzhou, China, 16-17 Nov. 2013, pp. 475-476, 1563.

4. Malhotra H. L. The effect of temperature on the compressive strength of concrete // Magazine of concrete research. Wexham Springs: Cement and concrete association. 1996, vol. 8, no. 23, pp. 85-94.

5. FEMA-356. Prestandard and сommentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Oct. 2002. 518 p. - Computational Model of Formation of Spatial Cracks of the First Type in Reinforced Concrete Structures under Torsion with Bending
- UDC 624.012.4.046

**Alexey S. SALNIKOV**, е-mail: ego2103@ukr.net

Bryansk State Academy of Engineering and Technology, prosp. Stanke Dimitrova, 3, Bryansk 241037, Russian Federation

**Vladimir I. KOLCHUNOV**, е-mail: vikolchunov@mail.ru

**Igor A. YAKOVENKO**, e-mail: i2103@ukr.net

National Aviation University, prosp. Kosmonavta Komarova, 1, Kiev 03680, Ukraine

**Abstract**. The classification of the spatial cracks in reinforced concrete lattice structures under torsion with bending is considered. This classification includes: spatial cracks of the first type, crossing longitudinal and transverse reinforcement, which are formed on the bottom or side faces under the action of internal forces, exceeding the crack stresses; cracks of the second type which cross only the transverse reinforcement and are formed at an arbitrary point within the structure volume under the action of shear force exceeding the cracks stress, and adjacent their tips to the concentrated force; cracks of the third type which cross only the transverse reinforcement and appear at an arbitrary point within the structure volume under the action of shear force exceeding the crack stress and can reach any point of the top or side compressed face of the reinforced concrete structure. It is proposed the computational model of spatial formation first type of cracks in reinforced concrete constructions under the action of torsion with bending, based on working assumptions and constructed equations. The physical interpretation of the solution obtained makes it possible to find the generalized minimum load, which corresponds to the formation of the first spatial crack on the bottom or side face in reinforced concrete structures under torsion with bending, and coordinates of its formation point. The solution of the problem of initiation of spatial cracks of the first type for two cases of their formation can be used for various schemes of loading, various types of longitudinal (with the possibility of accounting for pre-stressing) and transverse reinforcement, various classes of concrete and geometric characteristics of the cross-section.

**Key words**: reinforced concrete structures, resistance to torsion with bending, cracking, first type of spatial cracks, computational model. - REFERENCES

1. Salnikov A., Kolchunov Vl., Yakovenko I. The computational model of spatial formation of cracks in reinforced concrete constructions in torsion with bending. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015, vols. 725-726, pp. 784-789.

2. Bondarenko V. M., Kolchunov V. I. Raschetnyye modeli silovogo soprotivleniya zhelezobetona [The computational model of a power resistance of reinforced concrete]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004. 472 р. (In Russian).

3. Usenko N. V., Yakovenko I. A., Kolchunov V. I. The formation of inclined cracks of the third type in reinforced concrete composite structures. Building in Ukraine, 2013, no. 2, pp. 24-28.

4. Klueva N. V., Yakovenko I. A., Usenko N. V. On calculation of width of opening of inclined cracks of the third type in composite reinforced concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 2, pp. 8-11. (In Russian).

5. Spravochnik proyektirovshchika promyshlennykh, zhilykh i obshchestvennykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy. Raschetno-teoreticheskiy [Directory of designer industrial, residential and public buildings and constructions. Theoretical]. Pod red. A. A. Umanskogo. Vol. 1. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 600 p. (In Russian).

6. Prochnost, ustoychivost, kolebaniya [Strength, stability, vibration] : spravochnik v trekh tomakh. Pod red. I. A. Birgera i Ya.G. Panovko. Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye Publ., 1968. Vol. 1, 831 p.; vol. 2, 463 p.; vol. 3, 567 p. (In Russian). - Some Errors in Design and Construction of Low-Rise Houses Made of Light Steel Thin-Walled Structures under Conditions of the Far North
- UDC 691:536.21:691.77(571.56)

**Terenty A. KORNILOV**, e-mail: kornt@mail.ru

**Gregory N. GERASIMOV**, e-mail: grigorii-gerasimov@mail.ru

North-Eastern Federal University named after M. K. Ammosov, ul. Belinskogo, 57, Yakutsk 677000, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Experience in the construction has shown high economic efficiency in using light steel thin-walled structures for low-rise buildings in remote Northern regions of Yakutia. The considered regions are characterized by a long winter period, especially low temperatures of outside air during the winter period and high wind speeds, resulting in increased air infiltration. The article presents results of on-site inspections of low-rise buildings made of light steel thin-walled structures built on the territory of Yakutia. The thermo-visional inspection made it possible to detect the areas of heat leakage through enclosing structures of buildings. The analysis of the structural concept of low-rise buildings made of light steel thin-walled structures and the materials of on-site inspections identified main mistakes made in the course of the design and construction of these buildings. It is shown that the increased air filtration characteristic for conditions of the Extreme North and availability of numerous heat conductive elements are not fully considered when designing frame buildings. Thermal insulating gaskets used between the steel elements during the coldest days do not perform their functions. Results of the calculation of temperature fields at the connection of the wall enclosure with the basement floor are presented; their comparison with the actual data on the temperature on the surface of elements is made.

**Key words**: light steel thin-walled structures, frame buildings, air infiltration, low temperatures, cold bridges. - REFERENCES

1. Kornilov T. A., Arzhakov V. G., Gerasimov G. N. The introduction of technologies lsts on the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Sovremennye problemy stroitel'stva i zhizneobespecheniya: bezopasnost', kachestvo, energo- i resursosberezhenie. Yakutsk, SVFU im. M. K. Ammosova, 3-4 marta 2014 g. [Elektronnyy resurs]. Kirov, MTsNIP, 2014, pp. 124-133. (In Russian).

2. Kuz'menko D. V., Vatin N. I. Enclosing structure "zero thickness" - Thermopanel. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal, 2008, no. 1, pp. 13-21. (In Russian).

3. Ayrumyan E. L. Rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu, izgotovleniyu i montazhu konstruktsiy karkasa maloetazhnykh zdaniy i mansard iz kholodnognutykh stal'nykh otsinkovannykh profiley proizvodstva OOO "Balt-Profil'" [Recommendations for the design, manufacture and installation of structures of low-rise frame buildings and attics of the cold-formed galvanized steel profiles produced by "Baltic Profile"]. Moscow, TsNIIPSK im. Mel'nikova Publ., 2004. 69 p. (In Russian).

4. Gagarin V.G., Kozlov V. V., Sadchikov A. V., Mekhnetsov I. A. Longitudinal air filtration in modern walling. AVOK, 2005, no. 8, pp. 60-70. (In Russian).

5. Gagarin V. G., Kozlov V. V., Sadchikov A. V. Accounting longitudinal air filtration in assessing the thermal performance of the wall with ventilated facade. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2005, no. 6, pp. 42-45. (In Russian).

6. Fayst V. Osnovnye polozheniya proektirovaniya passivnykh domov [General design of passive houses]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2011. 148 p. (In Russian).

7. Danilov N. D., Shadrin V. Yu., Pavlov N. N. The prediction of the temperature regime of corner joints of exterior walling. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 4, pp. 20-22. (In Russian).

8. Danilov N. D., Sobakin A. A., Slobodchikov E. G., Fedotov P. A., Prokop'ev V. V. Analysis of the formation of the temperature field of the outer wall with reinforced concrete facade panel. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 11, pp. 46-49. (In Russian). - Experimental Study of Attachment Points of Finishing Cassettes for Systems of Suspended Ventilated Facades
- UDC 69.022.326

**Valentina M. TUSNINA**, e-mail: valmalaz@mail.ru

**Denis A. ЕMELYANOV**, e-mail: snegiri_emelianov@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Results of the experimental study of the serrated joint of suspended ventilated faзade system are presented. Conclusions about strength characteristics of this joint connection are made. The developed design has a lower complexity of installation, high seismic resistance and ensures effective ventilation of air gaps in comparison with existing systems due to the peculiarities of the design solution. To determine the boundaries of the possible use of the system depending on the wind load, the tear tests of the serrated connection of the structure with the imitation of wind load have been conducted. Tests have shown that the minimum breaking load on the connection was 2663,8 H and tensile stress - 3,73 kPa. On the basis of calculations, the maximum possible load on the joint connection for common and corner zones of the faзade was determined. The analysis of results of the calculation and the experiment makes it possible to conclude that the developed system of the suspended faзade can be used for buildings of up to 75 m height in the I-VII wind regions of Russia.

**Key words**: suspended facade system, ceramic granite facing boards, bracket, carriage, cassette. - REFERENCES

1. Emelyanov D. A. Proposals for improving the bearing wall of a suspended ventilated facade made of composite materials. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 12, pp. 28-30. (In Russian).

2. Emelyanov D. A., Tusnina V. M. Joint connections of elements in bearing systems of suspended ventilated facades. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 11-13. (In Russian).

3. Granovsky A. V., Kiselev D. A., Alexandria M. G. Anchor fastening: problems and solutions. Tekhnologii stroitel'stva, 2006, no. 6, pp. 6-11. (In Russian).

4. Glikin S. M., Kodysh E. N. Hinged facade system with effective insulation and ventilated air gap. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2008, no. 9, pp. 36-37. (In Russian).

5. Kazakevich A. V. Corrosion resistance - a basis of safety of steel structures. Tekhnologii stroitel'stva, 2006, no. 7, pp. 22-25. (In Russian).

6. Nemova D. V. Ventilated facades: an overview of the main problems. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal, 2010, no. 5, pp. 7-11. (In Russian).

7. Davydova A. V. Aluminum composite panels and their properties. Stroyprofil, 2006, no. 1, pp. 58-59. (In Russian). - Determination of Stresses in Reinforcement without Adhesion with Concrete in Beamless Floors
- UDC 692.522.2:691.87-427.4

**Vitaliy S. KUZNETSOV**, e-mail: visku1943@km.ru

**Yulia A. SHAPOSHNIKOVA**, e-mail: yuliatalyzova@yandex.ru

Mytishchi Branch, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Olimpiyskiy prosp., 50, Mytischi 141006, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. When calculating the strength of beamless floors without adhesion between reinforcement and concrete, it is necessary to take into account the work of a cable as an element of the cable system. The use of this method makes it possible to specify the stress state in the high-strength pre-stressed reinforcement after manifestation of the first losses and, therefore, to better use the strength properties of reinforcement. The purpose of this work is to clarify the limits of applicability of high-strength reinforcement, set the range of loads under which the calculated (limiting) stresses will be reached in cables. Features of the operation of beamless floors with high-strength reinforcement of the "Monostrand" type at the manifestation of the first losses are considered. The methods for determining stresses in pre-stressed reinforcement based on the deflection limits are proposed. After removal of the formwork, the pre-stressing reinforcement, which has no adhesion with concrete, is loaded with permanent and temporary loads. In this case the cable is considered as an inextensible and elastic thread. The results of calculations are presented in the form of the table and graphs of stresses in the cable. At that, the value of loads and the number of cables per the calculated meter of width are changed. The proposed methodology for determining stresses in cables at given movements makes it possible to establish the levels of pre-stressing to ensure the full use of reinforcement strength in subsequent calculations.

**Key words**: beamless overlap, Monostrand, loss of pre-stressing, high-strength reinforcement, normative deflection. - REFERENCES

1. Spravochnik proektirovshhika promyshlennyh, zhilyh i obshhestvennyh zdanij i sooruzhenij [Reference designer of industrial, residential and public buildings]. Pod red. A. A. Umanskogo. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1973. 600 p. (In Russian).

2. Zav'jalova O. B. More precise definition of stresses in working reinforcement of monolithic slabs of girderless frames with due regard for the real modulus of elasticity and creep modulus of early concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 5, pp. 50-53. (In Russian).

3. Bardysheva Yu. A., Kuznetsov V. S., Talyzova Yu. A. Constructive solutions beamless slabs without capitals with prestressed reinforcement. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 6, pp. 44-51. (In Russian).

4. Citnikov S. L. A method for manufacturing prestressed concrete structures and monostrend. Patent RF № 2427686. 2011. URL: http://www.freepatent.ru/ patents/2427686. (accessed 20.01.2015). (In Russian).

5. Rukovodstvo po proektirovaniju zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij s bezbalochnymi perekrytijami [Guide for Design of Concrete Structures with beamless floors ]. NIIZhB, TSNIIPromzdany, Ural'skiy PromstroyNIIproekt. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979. 50 p. (In Russian).

6. Pogrebnoy I. O., Kuznetsov V. D. Beamless prestressed frame with flat roof. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal, 2010, no. 3. URL: http://www.engstroy.spb.ru. (accessed 15.01.2015). (In Russian).

7. Karpenko N. I. Obshhie modeli mehaniki zhelezobetona [General mechanics model of reinforced concrete], Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1996. 255 p. (In Russian). - BASES AND FOUNDATIONS, UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
- Strength Calculation of Pile-Columns with Support Caps of the «Bell» Type
- UDC 624.07.154.3

**Yulia B. GRIGORYEVA**, e-mail: xotteu@mail.ru

Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, ul. Kosmonavtov, 1, Ufa 450062, Russian Federation

**Vladimir V. ALADINSKIY**, e-mail: aladinskiy@iii-tech.com

Research Institute for Oil and Oil Products Transportation, Sevastopolskiy prosp., 47A, Moscow 117186, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The calculation of the strength of the mount assembly for coupling the support cap of the "bell" type with the pile is considered. For the square (in plan) cap an example of defining the 3-axial stress-strain state of the cap, concrete for grouting, pile head is given. The highest stress concentration occurs at the edges of the support unit of coupling the pile-column with the above-ground structure and on the bottom surface of the cap in the areas of transition from the pile to the head. In addition to the high concentration of compressive stresses, the danger is presented by the tensile stresses acting in the assembly body and approaching the limit of concrete tensile strength. The level of the 3-axial stress-strain state largely depends on the actual values of the contact area and the eccentricity of the applied load. To assess the degree of risk of the arising stress-strain state a phenomenological deformation criterion of strength is offered. This criterion reflects the fundamental dependences of the concrete strength on the type of stress-strain state and the value of components of the tensor of principal strains or stresses. In the considered assembly, in the most loaded points, stresses reach 79% of the ultimate strength (without safety factors accounting). Due to the proximity of the stresses to the limit values it is impossible to guarantee, for the entire period of operation, the absence of cracks in concrete for grouting. To ensure the integrity of the assembly the cap must have a high crack resistance which can be achieved by using steel-fiber concrete. The use of pile-columns with support caps of the "bell" type makes it possible to minimize the size and weight of the foundation, but results in high requirements for mechanical characteristics of the cap material, correct design of the pile-column and the quality of construction and installation work.

**Key words**: pile-column, cap of "bell" type, 3-axial stress-strain state, strength criterion, steel-fiber concrete. - REFERENCES

1. Tipovye konstruktsii, izdeliya i uzly zdaniy i sooruzheniy. Ser. 1.111.1-4. Ogolovki svay sbornye zhelezobetonnye dlya zhilykh i obshchestvennykh zdaniy. Vyp. 1. Ogolovki tipa "kolokol" [Typical designs, products and units of buildings and structures. Ser. 1.111.1-4. Headroom piles precast concrete for residential and public buildings. Vol. 1. Headroom type "bell"]. Moscow, 1983. 20 p. (In Russian).

2. Morozov V. I., Khegay A. O. On the calculation of eccentrically compressed elements with small eccentricities made of high-strength steel fibrous concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 11, pp. 74-75. (In Russian).

3. Timoshenko S. P., Gud'er Dzh. Teoriya uprugosti [Theory of elasticity] (per. s angl.). Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1975. 576 p. (In Russian).

4. Gusev B. V., Zvezdov A. I., Yin S. Y-L. Stressed-strained state in concrete as a composite material under compressive loads and rational reinforcement with spiral reinforcement. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 6, pp. 34-36. (In Russian).

5. Benin A. V. Finite element modeling of the processes of destruction of elements of reinforced concrete structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 5, pp. 16-20. (In Russian).

6. Pol' B. Makroskopicheskie kriterii plasticheskogo techeniya i khrupkogo razrusheniya [Macroscopic criteria for plastic flow and brittle fracture]. Razrushenie (pod red. G. Libovitsa; per. s angl.). Moscow, Mir Publ., 1975, vol. 2, pp. 336-520. (In Russian).

7. Grigoryeva Yu. B., Kuznetsov A. A., Nedoseko I. V. The use of piles-columns with support caps of a "bell" type in construction of transport overpasses. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 65-68. (In Russian). - BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
- Ways of Improving the Competitiveness of Reinforcing Meshes on the Basis of Basalt Fiber and Prospects of Their Use in Construction
- UDC 624.012.25:213.2

**Arkady V. GRANOVSKY**, e-mail: arcgran@list.ru

TSNIISK named after V. A. Koucherenko, SRC «Stroitelstvo», 2-ya Institutskaya ul., 6, Moscow 109428, Russian Federation

**Vera V. GALISHNIKOVA**, e-mail: galishni@yandex.ru

**Elizaveta I. BERESTENKO**, e-mail: cutelisita@mail.ru

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya, 6, Moscow 117198, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Composite materials are widely used in many countries of Europe, Asia, and America. In Russia, the scope of their application in the construction industry is significantly less, although their use in many cases is preferable from economic and technological points of view. TSNIISK named after V. A. Kucherenko in cooperation with specialists of the People's Friendship University of Russia conducted experimental studies aimed at the assessment of application of reinforcing meshes on the basis of basalt fiber instead of the steel mesh for reinforcing the masonry made of various stone materials. The investigation program included the tests on the wind load effect, transverse load (bending), snatching from masonry etc. Results of the study show that it is possible to use the reinforcing mashes based on the basalt fiber for strengthening the masonry from ceramic brick (including hollow brick) and large-size stone that makes it possible to reduce the consumption of mortar mix, ensure the normative value of heat conductivity coefficient and improve the compression strength. The use of such meshes is also reasonable for reinforcing the mortar screed for exclusion of shrinkage cracks when making the floor pavement and in structures of roofing cover.

**Key words**: composite materials in construction, reinforcing mesh, basalt fiber, experimental study, strengthening of masonry from brick and stone. - REFERENCES

1. Stepanova V. F., Stepanov A. Yu., Zhirkov E. P. Armatura kompozitnaya polimernaya [Reinforcement of composite polymer]. Moscow, Bumazhnik Publ., 2013. 200 p. (In Russian).

2. Stepanova V. F., Stepanov A. Yu. Non-metallic composite reinforcement for concrete structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 1, pp. 45-47. (In Russian).

3. Kostenko A. N., Mochalov A. A., Granovsky A. V. Strengthening of masonry structures using elements of external reinforcement of carbon fiber. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2006, no. 7, pp. 47-48. (In Russian).

4. Sokolov B. S., Antakov A. B., Fabrichnaya K. A. A comprehensive study of the strength of the hollow-porous ceramic stones and masonry in compression. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov, 2012, no. 5 (34), pp. 65-71. (In Russian). - ENGINEERING SURVEYS FOR CONSTRUCTION
- Application of Geophysical Methods in the Course of Engineering Surveys at Sites of Mass Construction
- UDC 624.131.3

**Stanislav E. TARASENKO**,**Ivan M. SHEREMETOV**, e-mail: astexpertiza@mail.ru

Gosudarstvennaja Jekspertiza Proektov, ul. Kommunisticheskaja, 2-4, Astrahan' 414000, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Practical possibilities of using the complex method for performing engineering surveys are considered. The problem of complexation of direct engineering-geological and geophysical methods should be solved when the survey program is formed. The choice of methods for conducting geophysical investigations is determined on the basis of the need for detailing of the stratification picture due to complex engineering-geological conditions (alternating facies replacement of bed rocks, the presence of buried land forms in the soil body, a priori availability of sand lenses, mottled geology of the site in general). According to the authors, the method of GPR is the most applicable for solving these problems. The efficiency of the use of GPR equipment for conducting engineering surveys is confirmed in practice, on the sites of mass construction in Astrakhan Region. Results of the treatment of radargrams well correlate with results of the construction of the lithologic section. The use of geophysical methods of soils study under conditions of complexation makes it possible, as a rule, to reduce the cost and time of surveys, improve the accuracy of the information obtained for project decision-making that permits to reasonably recommend to include these methods in the structure of surveys when designing objects both of the second and third geotechnical categories.

**Key words**: engineering surveys, geophysical surveys, GPR method, complexation of engineering surveys. - REFERENCES

1. Denisov R. R., Kapustin V. V. Processing of GPR data in automatic mode. Geofizika, 2010, no. 4, pp. 76-80. (In Russian).

2. Pavlov A.T., Lepeshkin V. P., Fedukin M. B., Pavlova Yu. N. The development of technology and equipment pulse Geoelectromagnetic high-resolution studies of the structure of the landslide and forecast of its development. Materialy 5-y Vseros. konf. AN RF "Otsenka i upravlenie prirodnymi riskami" [Materials of the 5th all-Russian conference of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Assessment and management of natural risks"], 26-27 March. Moscow, 2003, pp. 200-203. (In Russian).

3. Vladov M. L., Starovoytov A. V. Vvedenie v georadiolokatsiyu [Introduction to radio positioning]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 2004. 153 p. (In Russian).

4. Tatarkin S. A. Sovremennye geofizicheskie metody v stroitel'noy praktike [Modern geophysical methods in construction practice]. SPb: NPO "Georekonstruktsiya-Fundamentproekt" Publ., 2007. 100 p. (In Russian).

5. Polumordvinov O. A., Sheremetov I. M. The results Geomonitoring road Volgograd-Astrakhan. Materialy III Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. "Innovatsionnye tekhnologii v nauke i obrazovanii - resurs razvitiya stroitel'noy otrasli i zhilishchno-kommunal'nogo khozyaystva" [Materials of the III International scientific-practical conference "Innovative technologies in science and education resource development of the construction industry and housing and public utilities]. Astrakhan', AISI Publ., 2010, pp. 158-162. (In Russian).

6. Tarasenko S. E., Sheremetov I. M. Some results of the application of geophysical methods for the examination pipe canal navigation. Perspektivy razvitiya stroitel'nogo kompleksa: materialy VI mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf [Prospects of development of the construction complex: proceedings of the VI international scientific-practical conference]. 22-26 oktyabrya, vol. 1. Astrakhan': AISI Publ., 2012, pp. 173-178. (In Russian).

7. Polumordvinov O. A., Sheremetov I. M. Practical application of the method of GPR for carrying out engineering surveys. Nauka v sovremennom mire. Materialy VII Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf.: sb. nauch. tr [Science in the modern world. Proceedings of the VII International scientific-practical conference]. Moscow, "Sputnik +" Publ., 2011, pp. 101-104. (In Russian).

8. Sheremetov I. M. The use of complex approach to geotechnical monitoring of monuments of history and architecture. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 5, pp. 33-35. (In Russian).

9. Polumordvinov O. A., Sheremetov I. M., Kurdyuk A. Yu. On the problem of development of complex procedure of engineering surveys for solution of geotechnical and geoecological tasks of construction at urbanized territories. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2009, no. 1, pp. 45-46. (In Russian). - HEAT SUPPLY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING, LIGHTING
- Lighting Properties of Surrounding Development When Calculating the Natural Illumination in Premises of Embedded Buildings with Natural Upper Lighting System
- UDC 628.928:711.4

**Sergey V. STETSKY**, e-mail: AGPZ@mgsu.ru

**Kira O. LARIONOVA**, е-mail: larionova_k_o@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Issues of the definition of lighting effect level of the surrounding development on the levels of natural lightning in below-ground premises of civil buildings, when the upper natural lighting systems are used in them, are highlighted. The character of this effect, which can be either reflecting or shadowing due to different sky conditions, different faзade finishing, different geometric parameters both of premises and surrounding buildings are defined. Due to the shortage of urban territories, the considered problem is very urgent in connection with constant increase in development of underground spaces in large cities (trade centers, underground parking etc.). At that, acting normative documents do not consider the influence of the surrounding development on the levels of natural illumination in these buildings. This seriously influences on the assessment of the light environment in premises, on the calculation and design of illumination. The authors put forward a scientific hypothesis according to which and on the basis of universality of the distribution of natural lighting at the standard diffusion illumination from the completely cloudy sky, the coefficient of natural illumination in the premise can be defined using the formulas which also have the universal character regardless of the system of natural illumination. In this regard, some principles of a daylight factor calculation in the case of a side natural illumination are suggested to use in calculations for upper natural illumination, with due regard for the lighting effect on the surrounding development for example. It is noted that subjects of further scientific research will be the assessment of economic efficiency of above-mentioned suggestions and the lighting effect of the surrounding development under conditions of the clear sky.

**Key words**: surrounding development, natural lighting system, overcast sky, clear sky, shadowing effect, reflecting effect, below-ground premises. - REFERENCES

1. Stetskiy S. V., Larionova K. O. To the question about the calculation of natural lighting in areas with high natural lighting taking into account the lighting effects of the surrounding buildings. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 12, pp. 20-31. (In Russian).

2. Slukin V. M., Simakova E. S. Problems of natural lighting in tight urban environment. Akademicheskiy vestnik UralNIIproekt RAASN, 2010, no. 2, pp. 56-60. (In Russian).

3. Slukin V. M., Smirnov L. N. Providing standardized conditions of natural lighting in residential buildings in compacted urban development. Akademicheskiy vestnik UralNIIproekt RAASN, 2011, no. 4, pp. 75-77. (In Russian).

4. Solovyov A. K. Hollow tubular light conductors and their use for natural lighting of buildings. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2007, no. 2, pp. 53-55. (In Russian).

5. Solovyev A. K. The hollow tubular fibers and their application to natural lighting of buildings and energy saving. Svetotekhnika, 2011, no. 5, pp. 41-47. (In Russian).

6. Solovyev A. K. Uchet vliyaniya otrazhennogo sveta v raschetakh estestvennogo osveshcheniya promyshlennykh zdaniy s sistemami verkhnikh svetoproemov pri neravnomernom svetoraspredelenii [Accounting for the effects of reflected light in the calculation of natural lighting of industrial buildings with systems of the upper aperture uneven distribution]. Sb. nauch. tr. kafedry arkhitektury. Moscow, MISI Publ., 1974, pp. 28-31. (In Russian).

7. Zemtsov V. A. Designing and calculation of natural lighting through skylights shaft type. Svetotekhnika, 1990, no. 10, pp. 25-36. (In Russian).

8. Mokhel'nikova Y. Natural light and skylights. Svetotekhnika, 2008, no. 3, pp. 26-30. (In Russian).

9. Bakharev D. V., Zimnovich I. A. The theoretical analysis empirical brightness facades. Svetotekhnika, 2008, no. 3, pp. 10-17. (In Russian).

10. Brotash L., Uilson M. Calculation of indicators of natural light. Svetotekhnika, 2008, no. 3, pp. 44-47. (In Russian).

11. Brotas L., Wilson M. Daylight in urban canyons : planning in Europe. PLEA2006. The 23rd сonference on passive and low energy architecture. Geneva, Switzerland, 6-8 Sept. 2006, proc. II, pp. 207-212. - RESTORATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
- A New Method for Strengthening Metal Structures of Architectural Monuments
- UDC 621.792.052:624.014:725

**Alexander A. PYATNITSKY**,**Sergey A. KRUTIK**,**Igor O. MAKHOV**, e-mail: pik-mgsu@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. In the process of inspection of steel structures of domes of the building-architectural monument of the XVII century, various damages were detected in constructions. As results of the calculation of structures with due regard for damages revealed show, the domes are in a non-operable condition and require strengthening. In the course of conducting mechanical and chemical studies of steel samples it is established that structures elements have a high value of carbon equivalent that indicates a bad weldability and limited possibility to use welding for strengthening of structures. In this connection, a new method for strengthening of joints of structure elements of the dome with the use of composite materials on the basis of carbon plastic has been developed; this method is wrapping of damaged elements with carbon plastic strips. To compensate maximal shearing stresses from the side of the free end of the strengthening strap the fastening is strengthened by additional clamps. This technical solution makes it possible to recover the operational capability and ensure the hinge immobility of damaged units without replacing them that makes it possible to perform the most important task of reconstruction - to preserve the original appearance of the structure.

**Key words**: carbon fiber composite, composite materials, strengthening of metallic structures, reconstruction, connection of structure elements, architectural monument. - REFERENCES

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**Larisa V. LAZAREVA**, e-mail: arc-modern@inbox.ru

OOO «ARM ESTREYYa», ul. Timiryazevskaya, 1, str. 2, of. 2532, 127422 Moscow, Russian Federation- About Restoration of «A.S. Pushkin People's House»
**Elena V. MAKSIMOVA**, e-mail: arc-modern@inbox.ru

OOO «ARM ESTREYYa», ul. Timiryazevskaya, 1, str. 2, of. 2532, 127422 Moscow, Russian Federation