## Contents of issue ¹ 12 (december) 2014 |

- ENVIRONMENTAL ECOLOGY
- A Criterion Model Of Full Resource Cycle Is A Basis Of Ecological Safety Of Construction
- UDC 69.003.004.1.18:504.052

**Vyacheslav A. ILYICHEV**, e-mail: ilyichev@raasn.ru

RAACS, Bol'shaya Dmitrovka, 24, str. 1, Moscow 107031, Russian Federation

**Vitaly I. KOLCHUNOV**, e-mail: yz_swsu@mail.ru

Southwest State University, ul. 50 let Oktyabrya, 94, Kursk 305040, Russian Federation

**Svetlana A. KOBELEVA**, e-mail: ksa92@ya.ru

State University - Educational-Science-Production Complex, Naugorskoe shosse, 29, Orel 302020, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Within the concept of biospheric compatibility the problem of complex assessment of resource-and-energy saving potential in civil engineering is unresolved. To achieve the objectives of ecological safety the article offers the conceptual model of "full resource cycle", according to which the waste generated during the life cycle of a construction object, is suitable for the future resource and energy use. It is shown that the assessment of the efficiency of construction technologies is reasonably made on the basis of the generalized indicator of ecological safety of the building. The example of calculation of the generalized indicator of ecological safety of civil buildings with various constructive solution of bearing frames made of industrial elements is presented. It is noted that in the course of introducing new industrial energy-resource efficient and environmentally safe structural systems of civil buildings it is necessary to ensure the structural safety of frames of such buildings and for critical objects - the required potential of durability of construction systems in the case of possible impacts of natural and anthropogenic characters.

**Key words**: environmental safety, resource conservation, energy-saving, civil buildings. - REFERENCES

1. Ilyichev V.A., Kolchunov V. I., Karimov A. M., Aleksashina V. V., Bakaeva N. V., Kobeleva S.A. The offers to the draft of the doctrine gradoustroystva and movings (strategic planning of the cities - city planning). Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 1, pp. 2-10. (In Russian).

2. Telichenko V. I., Benuzh A. A. Improving the principles of sustainable development on the basis of experience of "green" standards application in the construction of Olympic facilities in Sochi. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 40-43. (In Russian).

3. Benuzh A. A., Podshivalenko D. V. Assessment of the total life cycle cost of a building with due regard for energy efficiency and ecological safety. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 43-46. (In Russian).

4. Ilyichev V. A., Kolchunov V. I., Kobeleva S. A., Solopov S.V. About innovative technologies for the resource-power effective construction. Fundamental'nye issledovanija RAASN po nauchnomu obespecheniju razvitija arhitektury, gradostroitel'stva i stroitel'noj otrasli Rossijskoj Federacii v 2012 godu: sbornik nauchnyh trudov / Ros. Akademija arhit. i stroit. nauk; Volgogr. gos. arhit.-stroit. un-t. Volgograd: VolGASU, 2013, pp. 433-436. (In Russian).

5. Kobeleva S. A. The systematization and identification of the directions of quality standard of the potential of energo- and resource-saving of civil buildings. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstrukcija, 2014, no. 5 (55), pp. 61-66. (In Russian).

6. Kobeleva S. A. Choice of criteria for Ecological assessment of construction technologies. Bezopasnost' v tehnosfere, 2013, no. 6, pp. 29-32. (In Russian).

7. Kolchunov V. I. Basic trends in developing structural designs and provision of dwelling safety. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2007, no. 10, pp. 15-18. (In Russian).

8. Klueva N. V., Kolchunov V. I., Bukhtiyarova A. S. Resource-energy saving structural system for residential and public buildings with a preset level of structural safety. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 2, pp. 9-12. (In Russian).

9. Bondarenko V. M., Kolchunov V. I.The concept and directions of development of the theory of structural safety of buildings and structures under the Influence of force and environmental factors. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 2, pp. 28-31. (In Russian). - ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING
- Modes Of Town Planning Reconstruction Of Historic Quarters
- UDC 711.424

**Tatyana V. VAVILONSKAYA**, å-mail: baranova1968@mail.ru

**Fedor V. KARASEV**, å-mail: fedor_karasev@mail.ru

Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, ul. Molodogvardeyskaya, 194, Samara 443001, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The historic quarter is considered as a planning module of town planning reconstruction. On the example of the Samara historical center the typology of quarters resulting from features of town planning history was revealed. Methods of work with objects of historical development established in theory and practice are classified. Architectural-construction, functional, and economic methods of reconstruction are highlighted. The author makes an attempt to link architectural and construction methods of works over individual historical buildings and constructions with the objectives of town-planning reconstruction. Depending on the historical quarter typology, the value and integrity of their developments five different levels of town-planning reconstruction are selected: urban conservation, urban restoration, urban renovation, urban upgrading, urban designing. Äàíà õàðàêòåðèñòèêà êàæäîãî èç ðåæèìîâ ðåêîíñòðóêöèè. Each mode of reconstruction is characterized. Examples of using the methodology of town planning reconstruction of quarters within the frames of experimental design are presented.

**Key words**: historical quarter, integrity and value of development, town planning reconstruction, reconstruction modes, regulation parameters. - REFERENCES

1. Bondarin F., Ron van Oers. Istoricheskij gorodskoj landshaft: upravlenie naslediem v epoxu urbanizma [Historic urban landscape: managing a heritage in the urbanism era]. Kazan : Otechestvo Publ., 2013, pp. 116-117. (In Russian).

2. Popova N. A. Rekonstrukciya i restavraciya istoriko-arxitekturnogo naslediya [Reconstruction and restoration of historical and architectural heritage]. Saratov, Akvarius Publ., 2003, pp. 45-48. (In Russian).

3. Axmedova E. A., Shabanov V. A. Gorodskaya sreda: problemy rekonstrukcii [Urban environment: problems of reconstruction]. Kujbyshev, Knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1989. 106 p.

4. Shhenkov A. S. Rekonstrukciya istoricheskix gorodov. [Reconstruction of historic towns]. Moscow, Pamyatniki istoricheskoj mysli Publ., 2013, 420 p.

5. Stadnikov V. E. A frictionless method of the historic block renovation in a regular Russian city. Arxitekton: izvestiya vuzov, 2010, no. 32, URL: http: //archvuz.ru/2010_4/5 (accessed 30.01.2013).

6. Vavilonskaya T. V. Methodological Aspect of Preservation and Renovation of Architectural and Historical Environment of a Large City (on the example of the city of Samara). Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 5, pp. 44-46. (In Russian) - CONSTRUCTION SCIENCE
- Analysis Of Structural Effects Of Time-Dependent Behaviour Of Concrete: An Internationally Harmonized Format
- UDC (083.75)(100)691.32:539.376

**Mario Alberto CHIORINO**, Professor Emeritus of Structural Analysis, Polytechnic of Turin; National Member Turin Academy of Sciences; Honorary Member American Concrete Institute

Politecnico di Torino DAD, Viale Mattioli 39, I-10125.Turin, Italy; e-mail: mario.chiorino@polito.it

**Abstract**. Modern concrete structures, realized through complex sequential construction techniques and/or characterized by significant non-homogeneities, are in general very sensitive to the effects of time-dependent behaviour of concrete (creep and shrinkage). Guidelines for the evaluation of these effects were developed in the last decades by international pre-standard and standard institutions on the basis of a common, although progressively evolving, scientific background, and of a substantially worldwide harmonized format. The author discusses the development, with his large personal involvement, of this favourable scenario, evidencing areas of well established consensus and open problems. In what concerns more specifically the effects of creep, it is now commonly accepted that a reliable analysis of the structural response in service conditions may be performed on the basis of the theory of ageing linear viscoelasticity, first established by Italian mathematician Volterra at the dawn of 20th century. The paper must be intended also as a homage to the memory of CEB Honorary Member and member of the Academy of Construction and Architecture of the USSR Alexei A. Gvozdev, for long-time had worked of NIIZhB, the Institute for Concrete and Reinforced Concrete now named after him of former USSR Gosstroy, for his crucial role in encouraging and assisting the author in the initial steps of transporting into CEB-FIP ambient, at the international level, the fundaments of this new advanced format for creep analysis, to which Gvozdev had given a fundamental contribution.

**Key words**: concrete, creep, shrinkage, structural effects, sequential constructions, time-dependent structural analysis, aging linear viscoelasticity, codes and recommendations, A. A. Gvozdev school. - REFERENCES

1. ACI 209.2R-08, Guide for Modeling and Calculation of Shrinkage and Creep in Hardened Concrete, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2008, 48 p.

2. ACI 209.3R-XX, Analysis of Creep and Shrinkage Effects on Concrete Structures, Final Draft, Chiorino M.A. (Chairm. of Edit. Team), ACI Committee 209, March 2011, 228 p.

3. Aleksandrovskii S. V., Analysis of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Structures for Temperature and Moisture Effects (with Account of Creep) (in Russian), Stroyizdat Publ., Moscow, 1966, 443 p.

4. Bazant Z. P., Numerical Determination of Long-range Stress History from Strain History in Concrete, Material and Structures, Vol. 5, 1972, pp. 135-141.

5. Bazant Z. P., Prediction of Concrete Creep Effects Using Age-adjusted Effective Modulus Method, Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 69, 1972, pp. 212-217.

6. Bazant Z. P., Theory of Creep and Shrinkage in Concrete Structures: a Pråcis of Recent Developments, Mechanics Today, vol. 2, Pergamon Press, New York, 1975, pp. 1-93. See also: RILEM TC-69, Material Models for Structural Creep Analysis (principal author Z. P. Bazant), Chapter 2 in Mathematical Modeling of Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete, Z. P. Bazant, ed., J. Wiley, Chichester and New York, 1988, pp. 99-215; RILEM TC-69, Creep Analysis of Structures (principal authors Z. P. Ba_ant and O. Buyukozturk), Chapter 3, ibid. pp.217-273.

7. Bazant Z. P., and Baweja S., Creep and Shrinkage Prediction Model for Analysis and Design of Concrete Structures - Model B3, in: A. Al-Manaseer ed., The A. Neville Symposium: Creep and Shrinkage - Structural Design Effects, ACI SP-194, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, 2000, pp. 1-83.

8. Bazant Z. P., Hubler M. H., Yu Q., Pervasiveness of Excessive Segmental Bridge Deflections: Wake-Up Call for Creep, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 108, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 2011, pp. 766-774.

9. Bazant Z. P., Li G.-H., and Yu Q., Prediction of Creep and Shrinkage and their Effects in Concrete Structures: Critical Appraisal, Proc., 8th Int. Conf. on Creep, Shrinkage and Durability of Concrete and Concrete Structures - CONCREEP 8, Vol. 2, T. Tanabe, et al. eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009, pp. 1275-1289.

10. Bazant Z. P., and Li G.-H., Unbiased Statistical Comparison of Creep and Shrinkage Prediction Models, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 105, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 2008, pp. 610-621.

11. Bazant Z. P., and Li G.-H., Comprehensive Database on Concrete Creep and Shrinkage, ACI Materials Journal Vol. 105, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 2008, pp. 635-638.

12. Bazant Z. P., and Prasannan S., Solidification theory for concrete creep: I. Formulation, Journal Eng. Mech., 115(8), 1989, pp. 1691-1703.

13. Bazant Z. P., and Prasannan S., Solidification theory for concrete creep: II. Verification and application, Journal Eng. Mech., 115(8), 1989, pp. 1704-1725.

14. Bazant Z. P., Yu Q., and Li G.-H., Excessive Long-Time Deflections of Prestressed Box Girders. I: Record-Span Bridge in Palau and Other Paradigms, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 138, No. 6, June 2012, pp. 676-686.

15. Bazant Z. P., Yu Q., and Li G.-H., Excessive long-time deflections of prestressed box girders. II: Numerical Analysis and Lessons Learned, ASCE Journal. of Structural Engineering., Vol. 138, No. 6, June 2012, pp. 687-696.

16. Casalegno C., Sassone M., Chiorino M. A., Time-dependent effects in cable-stayed bridges built by segmental construction, Proc. of Third International fib Congress incorporating the PCI Annual Convention and Bridge Conference. Washington D. C., 2010, pp. 539-554.

17. Casalegno C., Sassone M., Chiorino M. A., Time-dependent effects in concrete structures: a general computational approach, Proc. of Structural Engineers World Congress SEWC 2011, Como, Italy, (CD).

18. CEB, Comitå Eurointernational du Båton and Fådåration Internationale de la Pråcontrainte, International System of Unified Standard Codes of Practice for Structures, Vol. II, CEB-FIP Model Code for Concrete Structures, CEB Bulletin d'Information N° 124/125-E-F, 1978, 348 p.

19. CEB, CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, CEB Bulletin d'Information No. 213/214, Comitå Euro-International du Båton, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1993, 437 p.

20. Chiorino M. A., A Rational Approach to the Analysis of Creep Structural Effects, in J. Gardner & J. Weiss (eds). Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete, ACI SP-227, 2005, pp.107-141.

21. Chiorino M. A. and Carreira D. J., Factors affecting shrinkage and creep of hardened concrete and guide for modelling - A state-of-the-art report on international recommendations and scientific debate, The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 86, No. 12, December 2012, pp. 11-24. Errata, Vol. 87, No. 8, August 2013, p. 33.

22. Chiorino M. A. (Chairm. of Edit. Team), Napoli P., Mola F., and Koprna M., CEB Design Manual on Structural Effects of Time-dependent Behaviour of Concrete, CEB Bulletin d'Information N° 142-142 Bis, Georgi Publishing Co., Saint-Saphorin, Switzerland, March 1984, 391 p.

23. Chiorino M. A. and Sassone M., Further considerations and updates on time dependent analysis of concrete structures, in Structural Concrete - Textbook on behaviour, design and performance, 2nd edition, Vol. 2, Section 4.16, fib Bulletin 52, International Federation for Structural Concrete, Lausanne 2010, pp. 43-69.

24. EN 1992-2 2004, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 2: Concrete Bridges, Design and detailing rules, Appendix KK, Structural effects of time dependent behaviour of concrete, 2004, pp. 62-66.

25. fib, Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010, Ernst & Sohn, 2013, 402 p.

26. Gvozdev A. A., Creep of Concrete (in Russian), Proc. of the 2nd National Conference on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. Mechanics of Solids, Mekhanika Tverdogo Tela, Acad. of Sciences USSR, 1966, Moscow, pp. 137-152. (French translation: Le Fluage du Båton, CEB Bulletin N° 64, 1967).

27. Gvozdev A. A., Galustov K. Z., and Yashin A. V., On some deviations from the superposition principle in creep theory (in Russian), Beton i Zhelezobeton, 13(8), 1967,

28. Jiràsek M. & Bazant Z. P., Inelastic Analysis of Structures, Wiley and Sons, 2002, 734 p.

29. Levi F., Sugli Effetti Statici dei Fenomeni Viscosi (On the Structural Effects of Viscous Phenomena, in Italian), Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Serie VIII, Vol. IV, fasc. 3, pp. 306-311, fasc. 4, 1948, pp. 424-427.

30. Levi, F and Pizzetti G., Fluage, Plasticite, Precontrainte, Dunod, Paris, 1951, 463 p.

31. McHenry D., A New Aspect in Creep of Concrete and its Application to Design, Proc. ASTM, Vol. 43, 1943, pp. 1069-1086.

32. Maslov G. N., Thermal Stress States in Concrete Masses, with Account of Concrete Creep (in Russian), Izvestia NIIG, 28, 1941, pp.175-188.

33. Salençon J., Viscoelasticite pour le Calcul des Structures, Les Editions de l'Ecole Polytechnique, Les Presses des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris, 2009.

34. Sassone, M. and Casalegno, C., Evaluation of the structural response to the time-dependent behaviour of concrete: Part 2 - A general computational approach, The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 86, No. 12, December 2012, pp. 39-51. Errata, Vol. 87, No. 8, August 2013, p. 33.

35. Sassone M. and Chiorino M. A., Design Aids for the Evaluation of Creep Induced Structural Effects, in J. Gardner & J. Weiss (eds). Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete, ACI SP-227, 2005, pp. 239-259.

36. Volterra V., Sulle equazioni integro-differenziali della teoria della elasticità (Integral-differential equations of the theory of elasticity, in Italian), Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Vol. XVIII, 2° Sem., 1909, pp. 295-301. See also: Volterra V., Sur les åquations intågro-diffårentielles et leurs applications, Acta Mathematica, G. Mittag-Leffler Ed., Stockholm, 1912, pp. 295-350 ; Volterra V., Lecons sur les fonctions de lignes, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1913.

37. Yu Q., Bazant, Z. P. and Wendner R., Improved Algorithm for Efficient and Realistic Creep Analysis of Large Creep-Sensitive Concrete Structures, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 109, No. 5, Sept-Oct. 2012, pp. 665-675.

38. Creepanalysis, www.polito.it/creepanalysis, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Politecnico di Torino, 2004-2007 (currently under revision; reference should be made to new version to be edited in 2015). - The Analysis Of Pile'S Bearing Capability For A Pile Field Of Short Grid Pitch In Slumping Soil Of Type Ii: Technique And Simulation Results
- UDC 624.15(075.8)

**Alexander I. RUSAKOV**, e-mail: rusakov@rostel.ru

Southern Regional Research and Design Institute of Urban Development, ul. Sedova, 6/3, Rostov-na-Donu 344006, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The deformation hypotheses about the work of slumping soil at the space between piles have been suggested and based, and on their basis the equilibrium equation of watered slumping strata loaded with pile foundation has been obtained. The main assumptions in development of this equation are as follows: 1) In the middle of the row's adjacent piles the soil vertical displacement after foundation settlement but before watering is linear function of depth; 2) The vertical deformation variation caused by watering is defined only by the relative slump; 3) The tangent surface forces applied from a soil to a pile are established for linear-elastic soil with account of the friction force upper-limits. The obtained equation for slumping strata state contains unknown parameter which is the minimum settlement of no-watered soil within the boundaries of a pile row. To determine the latter, it is grounded the finite element simulation technique. The algorithm for solution of the equation for slumping strata state has been elaborated to derive the design load on the pile in the slumping soil of type II. The results of pile design load analysis, which is based on this solver, is presented and comparison with standard analysis technique is given. It is established that the design load on the pile is higher then one being calculated by actual standards that is caused by relief of slumping strata due to forces counteracting against negative friction.

**Key words**: the pressure distribution in slumping soil, the equilibrium equation (the equation of state) of watered slumping strata, pile's bearing capability, the design load on the pile, the negative friction force. - REFERENCES

1. Rusakov A. I. The Analysis of Pile's Bearing Capability for a Pile Field of Short Grid Pitch in Slumping Soil of Type II: Theoretical Basics of Technique. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 10, pp. 30-33. (In Russian).

2. Fiacco À. V., McCormic G. P. Nelineynoe programmirovanie: metody posledovatel'noy bezuslovnoy minimizatsii [Nonlinear Programming: Sequential Unconstrained Minimization]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1968. 240 p. (In Russian).

3. Karaulov À. M. Practical Method for Calculation of Vertical Reinforced Beds of Strip Foundations of Isolated Transport Facilities. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo universiteta, 2012, no. 2, pp. 183-190. (In Russian).

4. ANSYS, Inc. Theory. Release 5.7. Edited by Peter Kohnke. ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, 2001. 1264 p. Äëÿ öèòèðîâàíèÿ: Ðóñàêîâ À. È. Ðàñ÷åò íåñóùåé ñïîñîáíîñòè ñâàè äëÿ ñâàéíîãî ïîëÿ ìàëîãî øàãà â ïðîñàäî÷íîì ãðóíòå II òèïà: òåõíèêà è ðåçóëüòàòû ìîäåëèðîâàíèÿ // Ïðîìûøëåííîå è ãðàæäàíñêîå ñòðîèòåëüñòâî. 2014. ¹ 12. Ñ. 21-25. - Investigation Of Influence Of Defects Of Reinforced Concrete Structures On Corrosion Processes Of Steel Reinforcement
- UDC 666.982.2:620.193

**Gennadiy A. SMOLYAGO**,**Vasiliy I. DRONOV**,**Andrey V. DRONOV**, e-mail: anddre13@rambler.ru,**Sergey I. MERKULOV**

Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov, ul. Kostyukova, 46, Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article deals with results of the inspection of operating reinforced concrete structures with corrosion damages. Types of corroded structures and corrosion processes of steel reinforcement and concrete under the effect of aggressive environment are observed. Information about the types of defects and corrosion damages of concrete and reinforcement of reinforced concrete structures studied is presented. Some conditions of production and operation of reinforced concrete structures influencing on the rate of corrosion damages spreading are considered. An analysis of the influence of protective cover thickness on the corrosion of reinforcement is made in accordance with requirements of building norms. Conclusions and recommendations aimed at the improvement of durability of operating reinforced concrete structures are presented.

**Key words**: corrosion of reinforcement, corrosion cracks, defects and damages of reinforced concrete structures, durability, protective cover of concrete. - REFERENCES

1. Moskvin V. M., Ivanov F. M., Alekseev S. N., Guzeev E. A. Korroziya betona i zhelezobetona, metody ikh zashchity [Corrosion of concrete and reinforced concrete, methods of protection of them]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1980. 536 p. (In Russian).

2. Alekseev S. N., Ivanov F. M., Modry S., Shissl' P. Dolgovechnost' zhelezobetona v agressivnykh sredakh [Durability of reinforced concrete in aggressive environments]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990. 320 p. (In Russian).

3. Smolyago G. A., Kruchkov A. A., Drokin S. V, Dronov A. V. Investigation of chloride corrosion of steel reinforced concrete structures. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova, 2014, no. 2, pp. 22-24. (In Russian).

4. Benin A. V. Simulation of fracture of an automobile bridge's section under reinforcement corrosion impact. Promyshlennoe I grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 6, pp. 9-11. (In Russian).

5. Lykov A. V. Teoria sushki [Theory of drying]. Moscow, Energia Publ., 1968. 472 p. (In Russian). - Natural Oscillations Of A Homogeneous Orthotropic Prestressed Plate-Strip With Free And Rigidly Clamped Edges
- UDC 539.3

**Vladimir B. BRENDE**, e-mail: brende@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The task of studying the behavior of such long flat elements as plate-strips, last time often used in various fields, is set in this paper. Plates having anisotropic, including orthotropic, properties are of special practical interest. Own transverse vibrations of homogenous orthotropic plate-strips used in construction as flat elements, for building facades and various ceilings for example, are considered. Applying equation derived by I.G. Filippov which has principal differences with known equations of G. R. Kirchhoff and A. P. Timoshenko in terms of mechanics, as well as the boundary conditions in new statement, the eighth order frequency equation has been obtained for the homogenous, orthotropic prestressed plate-strip, one side of which is free, and the other one is held rigidly.

**Key words**: mechanics of deformable solid body, plate-strip, free vibrations, orthotropy, eighth order frequency equation. - REFERENCES

1. Egorychev Î. Î., Egorychev O. A. Analysis of the solution of problems of vibration plates by various methods. Doklady 11-th Russian-Polish Seminar "Theoretical Foundations of construction". Warsaw, 2002, pp. 163-173. (In Russian).

2. Egorichev O. A., Egorichev O. Î., Brende V.V. Transverse natural vibrations of orthotropic plate-strip with free edges. Vestnik MGSU, 2012, no. 7, pp. 26-30. (In Russian).

3. Love A. Matematicheskaya teoriya uprugosti [Mathematical Theory of Elasticity]. Moscow-Leningrad, ONTI Publ., 1935. 674 p. (In Russian).

4. Egorychev O. A, Brende V. V. Natural oscillations of a homogeneous orthotropic plate. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010. no. 6, pp. 45-46. (In Russian).

5. Kharde S. B., Mahale A. K., Bhosale K. S., Thorat S. R. Flexural vibrations plates by using exponential shear deformation theory. Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal novykh i peredovykh inzhenernykh nauk, 2013, no. 3, pp. 369-375. (In Russian). - MANAGEMENT. ECONOMY. MARKETING
- Problems Of Estimating And Improving The Reliability Of Elements Of Organizational Structure Of An Investment And Construction Project
- UDC 69:330.322.1

**Andrey A. MOROZENKO**, e-mail: morozenkoAA@mgsu.ru,

**Ivan E. VORONKOV**, e-mail: sto@mgsu.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article presents the fundamental approaches to assessing the reliability of elements of the organizational structure of the investment-construction project which affect the reliability of its functioning, the quantitative determination of the reliability of elements, as subjects of socio-economic and technological cooperation. Main components of reliability of group and personal factors influencing on the reliability of the structure as a whole are presented and systematized; an analysis of shortcomings of assessment methods of these factors is also made. Directions of research in determining the reliability of the organizational structure of the element of investment- construction project, as the probability of realization of the target function under changes of the external and internal environment of the project. Some ways of improving the reliability of the organizational structure of the investment- construction project are proposed.

**Key words**: reliability, stability, organizational structure of investment-construction project, relationship of elements, target function, probability. - REFERENCES

1. Ipatova L. F. Socialno-psikhologiceskoe obespecenie nadezhnosti deyatelnosti operativnogo personala na energopredpriyatiyakh [Socio-psychological reliability of the operating personnel at the utility]. Diss. kand. psihol. nauk. Yaroslavl, 2006. 192 p. (In Russian).

2. Kruk V. M. The problem of personal reliability specialist in Russian philosophical studies. Vestnik MGOU. Ser. Psihologicheskie nauki, 2011, no. 4, pp. 88-94. (In Russian).

3. Morozenko A. A. Investigation of structural peculiarities of an investment-construction project influencing on stable functioning of organization. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2013, no. 4, pp. 41-42.(In Russian).

4. Morozenko A. A. Refleksno-adaptivnaya model' organizatsionnoy struktury investitsionno-stroitel'nykh proektov [Reflex-adaptive model of the organizational structure of investment construction projects]. Dokt. Diss. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2013. 293 p. (In Russian).

5. Sarycev S. V. Socialno-psikhologiceskie factory nadezhnosti malykh grupp v razlicnykh socialnykh usloviyakh [Socio-psychological factors of reliability of small groups in different social contexts]. Dokt. Diss. Kursk, 2009. 238 p. (In Russian).

6. Metodika ocenki nadezhnossti rossiyskikh predpriyatiyi na osnovanii oficialnykh dannykh konsolidirovannogo balansa I proceiy kosvennoiy informacii [The method of evaluating the reliability of Russian enterprises on the basis of official data of the consolidated balance sheet and other indirect information]. URL: http://nwsa.ru/spec/method/rus_pr (accessed 29.09.2014). (In Russian). - Research In Synergetic Effect In The Sphere Of Investment And Innovative Activity Of Enterprises Of Building Materials Industry
- UDC 338.24:691

**Yury A. DOROSHENKO**, e-mail: rogova@intbel.ru

**Sofia M. BUKHONOVA**, e-mail: sofiabuh@mail.ru

**Irina V. SOMINA**, e-mail: irasomina@yandex.ru

Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov, ul. Kostuykova, 46, Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation Konstantin A. KLIMASHEVSKY, OOO "PREMIUM-STROY", ul. Lermontova, 49a, Belgorod 308027, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The synergetic effect resulting from integration of a production (material-technical) and personnel components of the investment-innovative potential of the enterprise is considered. Formulas of calculation of preservation, loss and growth of the synergetic susceptibility, and also preservation, loss and growth of synergetic ability are presented. The assessment of investment and innovative susceptibility and ability of the enterprises of the building materials industry of the Belgorod Oblast is made with the use of methods of the phase analysis and the information SAPPHIRE technology. On the basis of calculation results, conclusions on the level of investment-innovative potential, degree of stability of its structure and existence of positive or negative synergetic effect to the investment-innovative susceptibility of considered economic entities of the industry are made. The conducted research is an effective tool for assessing the investment-innovative potential of enterprises of building materials industry and can be used in the management practice.

**Key words**: synergetic effect, enterprise of building materials industry, potential of enterprises, investment-innovative susceptibility and ability. - REFERENCES

1. Bukhonova S. M., Klimashevskiy K. A. The analysis methods used to assess the synergistic effect of the enterprise's activity. Tretya mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya "Pravo, ekonomika i menedzhment v sovremennykh usloviyakh" [Third international conference "Law, Economics and management in modern conditions"], 18-20 aprelya 2013 g, Belgrad, vol. 1, pp. 233-238. (In Russian).

2. Vladimirskiy E. I., Ismaylov B. I. Sinergeticheskiye metody upravleniya khaoticheskimi sistemami [Synergistic methods of control of chaotic systems]. Baku, ELM Publ., 2011. 240 p. (In Russian).

3. Kosenkov R. A. Innovationary: Information technology SAPPHIRE. Innovatsionnaya ekonomika.URL: http://informaciometr.ru/innovaciometriya- tehnologiyasapfir-ekonomika/ (accessed 23.06.2014).

4. Klimashevskiy K. A. The algorithm of estimation of investment and innovative potential of the enterprise on the stability and adaptability to crises. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V.G. Shukhova, 2013, no. 6, pp. 128-132. (In Russian).

5. Klimashevskiy K. A. Calculation of index investment and innovation potential of the enterprise. Aktualnyye problemy ekonomicheskogo razvitiya: sb. dokl. Mezhdunar. zaochnoy nauch.-praktich. konf. [Actual problems of economic development: proceedings of the International correspondence scientific-practical conference]. Belgorod, BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova Publ., 2013, part 1, pp. 254-258. (In Russian).

6. Doroshenko Yu. A., Poluyanova N. V. The impact analysis of the competitive strength of the enterprises of construction materials industry. Vestnik Belgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta im. V. G. Shukhova, 2013, no. 6, pp. 117-120. (In Russian).

7. Korobeynikov O. P., Bocharov V. A., Korobeynikov I. O., Panyutina E. A. Development of investment provision of reproduction of fixed assets in enterprises. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 5, pp. 37-39. (In Russian).

8. Rudychev A. A., Doroshenko Yu. A., Chizhova Ye. N. Pricing of manufacturers of building materials. Stroitelnyye materialy, 2013, no. 1, pp. 20-22. (In Russian). - ÑÒÐÎÈÒÅËÜÍÛÅ ÌÀÒÅÐÈÀËÛ È ÒÅÕÍÎËÎÃÈÈ
- Innovative Developments Madi For Transport Construction
- UDC 625.7

**Vyacheslav M. PRIKHODKO**,**Yury E. VASILEV**, e-mail: vashome@yandex.ru

Moscow State Automobile and Road Technical University (MADI), Leningradskiy prosp., 64, Moscow 125319, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Moscow Automobile and Road Institute (MADI) was established in 1930. He trains in the operation of vehicles, road and bridge and airfield construction, development of road construction equipment. Carries out research work aimed at improving the reliability and longevity of elements of road transport complex of Russia. So, MADI developed and transferred Moscow 10 automated road scanners "ADS-MADI" for integrated monitoring pavement and subgrade. Modification of the scanner 2015 will have a number of new features - to assess noise, lighting, strength of pavement and others. At the landfill site MADI built a universal complex of test pavements and tires. Since 2000, the University of addressing the issue of the use of sulfur-containing compounds in the road construction. Compositions by sulfur asphalt concrete and sulfur concrete mixtures recognized experts Russian Ministry of Transport innovative. Recent studies have shown high efficiency mechanical and chemical activation by cavitation processing of mineral and organic binders for the production of road-building materials.

**Key words**: Moscow Automobile and Road Institute (MADI), innovation, transport construction, sulfur-containing composites. - REFERENCES

1. Vasilev Yu. E., Prikhodko V. M. The issue of quality assurance of road surfaces. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2011, no. 10, pp. 45. (In Russian).

2. Vasilev Yu. E., Yumashev V. M. Mobile road laboratory ADS MADI. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 2, pp. 39-40. (In Russian).

3. Sposob izmereniya i registratsii tekhniko-ekspluatatsionnykh pokazateley poverkhnosti pokrytiya dorozhnoy odezhdy i funktsional'nyy kompleks dlya ego osushchestvleniya [The method of measurement and registration of technical characteristics and performance of surface pavement and functional complex for its implementation] / Prikhodko V. M., Vasilev Yu. E., Yumashev V. M. Patent na izobretenie RUS 2397286 26.01.2009. (In Russian).

4. Sposob issledovaniya fiziko-mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik dorozhnykh pokrytiy v usloviyakh ispytatel'nogo kompleksa (varianty) [The method of investigation of physical-mechanical characteristics of the road surface in conditions of test complex (options)]. Prikhodko V. M., Vasilev Yu. E., Yumashev V. M. [i dr.]. Patent na izobretenie RUS 2435230 04.03.2010. (In Russian).

5. Alekhina M. N., Vasilev Yu. E., Motin N. V., Sarychev I. Yu. Sulfur concrete mixture. Stroitel'nye materialy, 2011, no. 10, pp. 12-13. (In Russian).

6. Vasilev Yu. E., Alekhina M. N. Automation of Selection of the Mineral Part of Sulfur Asphalt Concrete Mixes on the Basis of Computer Simulation. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 11, pp. 72-75. (In Russian).

7. Vasilev Yu. E. Metodologicheskie osnovy avtomatizatsii protsessov promyshlennogo proizvodstva seroasfal'tobetonnykh smesey s optimizatsiey komponentov mineral'noy chasti po granulometricheskomu sostavu [Methodological basis for the automation of industrial production processes servervalidation mixtures with optimization of the components of the mineral part of the granulometric composition]: diss. ... d-ra tekhn. nauk. Moscow, 2012. 337 p. (In Russian).

8. Funktsional'nyy kompleks dlya prigotovleniya kompozitsionnogo seroasfal'tobetona (varianty) [Functional complex for the preparation of composite servervalidation (options)]. Prikhodko V. M., Vasilev Yu.E., Yumashev V. M. [i dr.]. Patent na poleznuyu model' RUS 96506 26.02.2010. (In Russian).

9. Vasilev Yu. E., Yumashev V. M., Subbotin I. V. Mechanical and chemical activation of bitumen. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 2, pp. 38-39. (In Russian).

10. Vasilev Yu. E. Regulirovanie struktury i svoystv tsementnykh sistem putem pereraspredeleniya zhidkoy fazy [Regulation of the structure and properties of cement systems by redistribution of the liquid phase]: diss. ... kand. tekhn. nauk. Moscow, 1990. 278 p. (In Russian). - Studies Of Biological Resistance Of Lime Composites With The Aid Of Mathematical Experiment Planning Methods
- UDC 691.51:519.87

**Boris V. GUSEV**, e-mail: info-rae@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, ul. Obrazcova, 9, b. 9, Moscow 127994, Russian Federation

**Vladimir T. EROFEEV**, e-mail: fac-build@adm.mrsu.ru

**Sergey V. HUTORSKOY**, e-mail: sergeohut@rambler.ru

**Dmitry N. PETRYAKOV**

Ogarev Mordovia State University, ul. Bolshevistskaya, 68, Saransk 430005, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Problems of the biodeterioration of building composites and negative influence of biological impact on physical and mechanical properties of materials and structures are considered. The results of studies of composites on the basis of quicklime are presented. In doing so, the influence of various structure-forming factors is taken into account and methods of the mathematical planning of the experiment are used. Dependences of the change in the strength and the biological stability of lime composites have been obtained. The equations that make it possible to select the optimum compositions of lime composites with a given set of properties depending on their functionality are proposed. Graphic dependences of changes in composite properties on the basis of lime with due regard for different factors have been built. The positive influence of special fungicidal products on the biological resistance of lime composites has been established. The compositions with improved biological resistance have been chosen. The study of biological impact on the properties of lime composites is of great scientific and practical interest.

**Key words**: biological stability, fungicidal additive, quicklime, planning matrix, regression equation. - REFERENCES

1. Shangina N. N., Haritonov A. M. Features production and use dry mortars for the restoration of monuments. Suhie stroitelnyie smesi, 2011, no. 4, pp. 16-19. (In Russian).

2. Loganina V. I., Kislicyna S. N., Zhernovskij I. V., Sadovnikova M. A. Lime finishing compositions using synthetic aluminosilicates. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shuhova, 2014, no. 2, pp. 55-57. (In Russian).

3. Gusev B. V., Erofeev V. T., Smirnov V. F., Dergunova A. V., Bogatov A. D.Working out of ways of increase of biofirmness of building materials. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2012, no. 4, pp. 52-58. (In Russian).

4. Kryazhev D. V., Smirnov V. F., Smirnova O. N., Zaharova E. A., Anikina N. A. The analysis methods for assessing the biological stability of industrial materials (criteria approaches). Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N. I. Lobachevskogo, 2013, no. 2-1, pp. 118-124. (In Russian).

5. Shankin S. A., Volgina E. V., Kudimova A. V. The process of introduction of innovative materials in the building complex of the Republic of Mordovia. Vestnik Samarskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2013, no. 10, pp. 102-107. (In Russian).

6. Svetlov D. A., Spirin V. A., Kaznacheev S. V. The study of physical and technical properties of cement composites with a biocide "Teflex". Transportnoe stroitel'stvo, 2008, no. 2, p. 21. (In Russian).

7. Bogatov A. D., Kretova V. M., Suraeva E. N. Properties of cement composites with additives biotsidnmi. Izvestiya Yugo-Zapadnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2013, no. 3, pp. 179-183. (In Russian).

8. Smirnov V. F., Mochalova A. E., Smirnova O. N., Zaharova E. A., Kryazhev D. V., Smirnova L. A. Destruction mikromitcetami composite materials based on natural and synthetic polymers. Povolzhskij ehkologicheskij zhurnal, 2011, no. 4, pp. 537-541. (In Russian).

9. Hutorskoj S. V., Erofeev V. T., Smirnov V. F. Improving the biological resistance of composites based on lime using fungicidal additives. Izvestiya KGASU, 2013, no. 2, pp. 281-286. (In Russian). - On The Problem Of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly Technogenic Sands Using For Production Of Fine-Grained Fiber Concrete And Products On Its Basis
- UDC 666.97

**Ruslan V. LESOVIK**, e-mail: ruslan_lesovik@mail.ru

**Sergey V. KLYUYEV**, e-mail: Klyuyev@yandex.ru

**Alexander V. KLYUYEV**, e-mail: Klyuyevav@yandex.ru

**Alexey V. NETREBENKO**

Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov, ul. Kostuykova, 46, Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Issues of the use of steel fiber for dispersed reinforcement of fine-grained concrete are considered in the article. Cement, fine ground cement and binder of material of low water requirement were used as a binding agent. The main filling material of the fiber concrete mix was technogenic sand of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly enriched with Tavolzhansky sand. The surface of crushing elimination of quartzitic sandstone and sand has been studied. It is revealed that quartzitic sandstone surface is rough with a highly developed structure but the sand surface has a rounded shape. It is established that the application of compositional binders and high density packing of filling grains significantly increase strength properties. It is explained by the better spatial packing of particles in the composite obtained and features of structurization. Hyper plasticizer GLENIUM115 has been used as a plasticizing additive. The microdispersed additive has been produced by re-milling of quartsitic sandstone. Rationalized selection of filling material allowed to receive fiber concrete with compressive strength of 104,8 MPa and bending strength of 23,2 MPa on the basis of technogenic sand of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly.

**Key words**: fiber concrete, fiber, composite binder, strength of concrete, microdispersed additive. - REFERENCES

1. Serykh I. R. Strength of steel-concrete elements with composite cage under eccentric compression and bending. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova, 2005, no. 10, pp. 442- 445. (In Russian).

2. Chikhladze E. D., Kolchunov V. I., Adamyan I. R. Stalebetonny element [Steel-concrete element]. Patent RF, no. 2122083, 1998. (In Russian).

3. Adamyan I. R. Napryazhenno-deformirovannoye sostoyaniye stalebetonnykh brusyev pryamougolnogo poperechnogo secheniya s sostavnoy oboymoy pri szhatii i izgibe Avtoref. dis. kand. tekhn. nauk. [Stress-strain state steel-concrete beams of rectangular cross section with composite cage compressive and bending]. Belgorod, 2000. 19 p. (In Russian).

4. Adamyan I. R. Experimental investigation of the stress-strain state of steel-concrete short columns. Sooruzheniya, konstruktsii, tekhnologii i stroit. mat. XXI veka [Construction, design, technology and construction materials of XXI century]. Sb. dokl. II Mezhdunar. konf.-shk.-sem. molodykh uchenykh, aspirantov i doktorantov. Belgorod, BelGTASM Publ., 1999, vol. 2, pp. 3-6. (In Russian).

5. Adamyan I. R. Experimental studies of steel-concrete rods with transverse bending. Kachestvo, bezopasnost, energo- i resursosberezheniye v prom.-ti stroit. mat. i stroitelstve na poroge XXI veka [Quality, safety, energy - saving in the building materials industry and construction on the threshold of XXI century]. Sb. dokl. Mezhdunar. nauchno-prakticheskoy konf. Belgorod, BelGTASM Publ., 2000, pp. 3-6. (In Russian).

6. Minasyan A. G., Kalashnikov A. T., Serykh I. R. Measures to increase durability PVI. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova, 2005, no. 11, pp. 355-360. (In Russian).

7. Pukharenko Ju. V., Golubev V. Ju. High-strength steel and fiber concrete. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2007, no. 9, pp. 40-41. (In Russian).

8. Klyuev A. V. Steel fiber concrete for precast-monolithic construction. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shuhova, 2011, no. 2, pp. 60-63. (In Russian).

9. Klyuev A. V., Lesovik R. V. Steel fiber concrete on composite binders and industrial sands for KMA bent designs. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shuhova, 2012, no. 2, pp. 14-16. (In Russian).

10. Klyuev A. V. Dispersno-armirovannyiy melkozernistyiy beton na tehnogennom peske KMA dlya izgibaemyih izdeliy. Avtoref. diss. kand. tekhn. nauk. [Particulate- reinforced concrete on technogenic fine sand KMA for flexural products]. Belgorod, 2012. 24 p. (In Russian). - Fiber Concrete Based On Technogenic Sand And Composite Binders With The Use Of Nano-Dispersed Powder
- UDC 691.87

**Alexander V. KLYUYEV**, e-mail: Klyuyevav@yandex.ru

Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov, ul. Kostuykova, 46, Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Issues of the application of technogenic raw materials and a composite binder with nano-dispersed powder derived from hydrothermal springs for high-strength fine-grained fiber concrete production are considered. Experimental studies of fiber concrete samples based on cement and composite binder were conducted. The principles of optimizing the structure of fine-grained concrete at the nano-level through the use of composite binder and nano-dispersed powder; at the micro level through the creation of high-density packaging filler; at the macro level through the introduction of steel fiber are offered. This made it possible to develop a wide range of fine-grained concrete using for the construction industry with ultimate compressive strength of up to 160 MPa and high deformation characteristics. The nature of influence of the binder composition, the quantity of nano-dispersed powder, super-plasticizer, and fibers, on the deformation characteristics of fine-grained concrete was established.

**Key words**: fiber concrete, fiber, strength of concrete, nano-dispersed powder. - REFERENCES

1. Serykh I. R. Strength of steel-concrete elements with composite cage under eccentric compression and bending. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova, 2005, no. 10, pp. 442- 445. (In Russian).

2. Patent RF ¹ 2122083, 20.11.1998. Chikhladze E. D., Kolchunov V. I., Adamyan I. R. Stalebetonny element [Steel-concrete element]. (In Russian).

3. Adamyan I. R. Eksperimentalnye issledovaniya napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya stalebetonnykh korotkikh kolonn [Experimental investigation of the stress-strain state of steel-concrete short columns]. Sooruzheniya, konstruktsii, tekhnologii i stroitel'nykh materialov XXI v. : coll. dokl. II Mezhd. konf.-shk.-sem. molodykh uchenykh, aspirantov i doktorantov. Belgorod, BelGTASM Publ., 1999, ch. 2, pp. 3-6. (In Russian).

4. Adamyan I. R. Eksperimentalnye issledovaniya stalebetonnykh sterzhney pri poperechnom izgibe [Experimental studies of steel-concrete rods with transverse bending]. Kachestvo, bezopasnost, energo- i resursosberezheniye v prom.-ti stroit. mat. i stroitelstve na poroge XXI v.: Sb. dokl. Mezhd. nauchno-prakticheskoy konf. Belgorod: BelGTASM Publ., 2000, pp. 3-6. (In Russian).

5. Minasyan A. G., Kalashnikov A. T., Serykh I. R. Measures to increase durability PVI. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova, 2005, no. 11, pp. 355-360. (In Russian).

6. Klyuev S. V. The use of composite binders to produce fiber-reinforced concrete. Tekhnologii betonov, 2012, no. 1-2, pp. 56-58. (In Russian).

7. Klyuev S.V. Ductile stalefibrobetona on technogenic sands KMA. Tekhnologii betonov, 2012, no. 5-6, pp. 33-35.

8. Uvarov V. À., Klyuyev S. V., Orekhova T. N., Klyuyev A. V., Durachenko A. V. Producing of high-quality fiber-reinforced concrete with the use of a countercurrent pneumatic mixer. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 8, pp. 54-56. (In Russian). - On The Statistical Component Of The Scale Factor When Testing Concrete
- UDC 624.012.4.57

**Sergey V. TSVETKOV**, e-mail: pika15@yandex.ru

Management of Special Construction, Lyublinskiy per., 7, lit. B, pom. 3N, St. Petersburg 192121, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. The article assesses the influence of the sizes of concrete cubes and sizes of aggregate on the results of concrete testing under compression with the use of a statistical model of the material. Currently used tabular values of scale coefficients take into account only the linear dimensions of cube-samples tested under compression, with limitation of the maximum size of the aggregate, without due regard for its actual sizes in the tested sample. It is proposed to consider the impact of the ratio of the average size of the aggregate and linear size of the sample on the strength of cubes under compression. In the proposed model, the structure of concrete is represented with the help of the correct square lattice, the nodes of which have random strength values. The dimensions of the lattice were determined by the number of grains of the filler contained in the sample. Changing the dimensions of the lattice, and hence the number of nodes, impacts on the limit value of the simulated load that leads to the emergence of "destroyed nodes" crossing the original lattice. Results of the simulation are presented on graphs. This model can be used for developing recommendations for testing of cube-samples under compression with the purpose of determining the class of concrete.

**Key words**: concrete strength test under compression, scale factor, scale coefficient, aggregate size, linear dimensions, structure of concrete. - REFERENCES

1. Kvirikadze O. L. Vlijanie razmerov obraztsov-kubov na prothosnije harakteristiki betona [The influence of the size of cube samples on the strength characteristics of the concrete]. Tbilisi: Sabchota Sakartvelo Publ., 1974. 53 p. (In Russian).

2. Gordon S. S., Soroker V. I. The ratio of the strength specimens of the concrete of various sizes and of standard. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura, 1962, no. 2, pp. 151-156. (In Russian).

3. Korsun V. I., Korsun A. V. The influence of the scale factor and elevated temperatures on strength and deformation of high-strength of modified concrete. Vestnik MGSU, 2014, no. 3, pp. 179-188. (In Russian).

4. Raykhel' V., Korad D. Beton [Concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979. 111 p. (In Russian).

5. Tsvetkov S. V. Dynamic strengthening maximum coefficient of concrete under axial compression. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura, 1990, no. 1, pp. 126-127. (In Russian).

6. Tsvetkov S. V. The statistical model of concrete destruction under biaxial compression. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 11, pp. 30-31. (In Russian).

7. Akhverdov I. N. Osnovy fiziki betona [The concrete foundations of physics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1981. 464 p. (In Russian).

8. Sheykin A. E., Chekhovskiy L. D., Brusser M. I. Struktura i svojstva tsementnyh betonov [Structure and properties of cement concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979. 344 p. (In Russian). - FOR THE BENEFIT OF DESIGNERS
- Calculation Of Forces In Elements Of Vertical Bracings On The Basis Of The Variation Method Of Vlasov-Mileikovsky
- UDC 624.04.074

**Andrey V. SHEVCHENCO**, e-mail: andsheff@rambler.ru

**Sergey M. SHAPOVALOV**, e-mail: SeregaShap@yandex.ru

**Victoria A. SHAPOVALOVA**, e-mail: sevevi@mail.ru

Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov, ul. Kostuykova, 46, Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. In the course of calculation and design of frame-bracing and bracing structural systems there is a need to determine forces in bracings of the frame structure. At present, forces and strains in the elements of buildings and structures is usually calculated by the finite element method. One of the possible ways to solve this problem is the use of variation principles for the calculation of structures such as rods of composite section. Within the limit of this work, issues of the use of calculations for determining forces in bracings and elements of the frame system with the help of variation principles on the basis of the method of Vlasov-Mileikovsky in the form of displacements where the structure is modeled as a composite rod are considered. The results of numerical calculations according to the proposed method and finite element method, which show similar results that makes it possible to take into account the specifics of bracing operation, are presented. In addition, it does not lose its relevance when checking calculations in other ways. The developed calculation method makes it possible to analyze the stress-strain state of lattice structures and to use it for calculation of a wide range of tasks.

**Key words**: variation method of Vlasov-Mileikovsky, frame-bracing system, bracing system, stress-strain state, deformations, displacement, composite rod, vertical linkages, finite element method. - REFERENCES

1. Mileikovsky I. E., Trushin S. I. Raschet tonkostennyh konstrukcij [The calculation of thin-walled structures]. Moscow, Strojizdat Publ., 1989. 200 p. (In Russian).

2. Kolchunov V. I., Panchenko L. I. Raschet sostavnyh tonkostennyh konstrukcij [Calculation of composite thin-walled structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1999. 281 p. (In Russian).

3. Bajdin O. V., Shevchenko A. V., Shapovalov S. M. Experimental study of the fracture toughness of the core precast-monolithic structures. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shuhova, 2009, no. 2, pp. 78-83. (In Russian).

4. Bajdin O. V., Shevchenko A. V., Shapovalov S. M. Calculation of precast-monolithic structures using variational method and the integral of the modulus of deformation. Stroitelnaya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenij, 2009, no. 4, pp. 9-13. (In Russian).

5. Bajdin O. V., Shevchenko A. V., Shapovalov S. M. Considering temperature deformations in the calculation of closed cylindrical shells by variational method. Stroitelnaya mekhanika i raschet sooruzhenij, 2009, no. 5, pp. 6-9. (In Russian).

6. Yurev A. G., Panchenko L. A., Seryh I. R., Rubanov V. G. Thin-walled structures of shallow tunnels. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo, 2014, no. 8, pp. 27-29. (In Russian).

7. Nikulin A. I. On clarifying the limiting relative strains of concrete in the compression area of bending reinforced concrete elements. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 8, pp. 12-15. (In Russian).

8. Kolchunov V. I., Skobeleva E. A., Korzhavyh A. I. To calculate the deformation of reinforced concrete frames with elements of the composite section. Academia. Arhitektura i stroitelstvo, 2009, no. 4, pp. 74-78. (In Russian).

9. Merkulov D. S. The strength of composite concrete elements with complex stress state. Izvestiya Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: stroitelstvo i transport. 2007, no. 4-16, pp. 48-51. (In Russian).

10. Kolchunov V. I., Skobeleva E. A., Gornostaev S. I. Experimental studies of the deformation and fracture of composite structures. Izvestiya Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: stroitelstvo i transport, 2006, no. 1-2, pp. 12-16. (In Russian). - Calculation Of Multi-Span Reinforced Concrete Beams By The Method Of Given Deformations
- UDC 624.012.45.044

**Gennadiy A. SMOLYAGO**,**Alexander E. ZHDANOV**,**Sergey V. DROKIN**, e-mail: drokin_sergey@mail.ru,**Andrey V. DRONOV**

Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov, ul. Kostuykova, 46, Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Studies aimed at the development and improvement of calculation methods of reinforced concrete elements are of significant practical interest. Small deformations of elements are one of conditions of using the limit equilibrium method for calculation of multi-span beams. This condition is not fulfilled when spans significantly differ from each other and the limit equilibrium method is difficulty applied. The methodology of calculation of multi-span continuous reinforced concrete beams proposed by authors does not have this drawback. The calculation by the given deformations method makes it possible to take into account the drop-down leg of the "stress-deformation" of concrete diagram under compression as well as redistribution of forces in the process of loading. To verify the proposed methodology the calculation of ultimate load of multi-span beams tested by different authors was made. An analysis of experimental and calculated data shows that the calculation, according to the new methodology, significantly improves the convergence of the ultimate load comparing with the calculation made by normative methodology that makes it possible to identify additional reserves of bearing capacity.

**Key words**: method of given deformations, multi-span beams, reinforced concrete structures, ultimate load. - REFERENCES

1. Gvozdev A. A. Raschet nesushchey sposobnosti konstruktsiy po metodu predel'nogo ravnovesiya. Sushchnost' metoda i ego obosnovanie [The Calculation of loadbearing capacity of structures by method of ultimate equilibrium]. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1948. 280 p. (In Russian).

2. Nikulin A. I. Definition of ultimate strain in compressed area of bending reinforced concrete structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 8, pp. 12-15. (In Russian).

3. Abakanov M. S. Prochnost' staticheski neopredelimykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy, armirovannykh stalyami bez ploshchadki tekuchesti [Strength of statically determined reinforced concrete structures, armoured with steel without yield stresses]. Diss. kand. tekhn. nauk. Moscow, 1979. 192 p. (In Russian).

4. Bambura A. N., Zhdanov A. E. Loadbearing capacity of continuous precast/cast-in-place beams under load and deformative effect. Tezisy dokladov k Vsesoyuznoy konferencii "Uskorenie nauchno-tekhnicheskogo progressa v promyshlennosti stroitel'nykh materialov i stroitel'noy industrii" [Abstracts of all-Union conference "Accelerating scientific-technical progress in the building materials industry and construction industry"]. Belgorod, 1987, pp. 15-21. (In Russian).

5. Korbukh A. A. Strength and deformations of statically determined reinforced concrete beams under combined effects of loads and cyclic icing-unfreezing. Diss. kand. tekhn. nauk. Moscow, 1987. 170 p. (In Russian).

6. Bachinskiy V. Ya., Bambura A. N., Vatagin S. S. [et al.]. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu parametrov diagrammy "s-e" betona pri kratkovremennom szhatii [Methodical recommendations on definition of "s-e" concrete diagram parameters under short term compression]. Kiev, NIISK Gosstroya SSSR Publ., 1985. 16 p. (In Russian). - On The Issue Of Considering Technological Factors Of Masonry In Russian And Vietnamese Construction Codes
- UDC (47+57:597)693.2(083.75)

**Andrey E. NAUMOV**, e-mail: kafeun@mail.ru

Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov, ul. Kostuykova, 46, Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation

**Doan D. HAI**, e-mail: dduonghai2003@gmail.com

National University of Civil Engineering (NUCE), 55 Giai Phong Road, Hanoi, Vietnam

**Abstract**. Key technological imperfections of the masonry composite, which specify the stress-strain state of brickwork elements and influence on the strength and crack resistance of stone structures, are considered. Comparative characteristic of the mathematical apparatus that forms the basis of process regulations of masonry design in Russia, Vietnam and European standards was conducted. Parameters of the stress-strain state of masonry with due regard for imperfections are determined in the course of the decision of the plane stress problem for a single brick with an expression of an external load, stresses and boundary conditions in the form of infinite trigonometric Fourier series and with the help of the analysis of the limit state of brick material according to the generalized strength criterion of Pisarenko-Lebedev. The boundary conditions of the problem based on the physical heterogeneity of the horizontal mortar bed are experimentally established and analytically described by authors. The authors made a numerical simulation making it possible to optimize the tabular method for determining the strength of masonry under compression, contained in Russian and Vietnamese technical codes.

**Key words**: brickwork, strength, crack resistance, stress-strain state, trigonometric Fourier series, masonry technology, plane stress problem, generalized strength criterion of Pisarenko-Lebedev. - REFERENCES

1. Onishchik L. I. Prochnost' i ustoychivost' kamennykh konstruktsiy [The strength and stability of masonry structures]. Moscow, ONTI Publ., 1937. 291 p. (In Russian).

2. Belentsov Yu. A. Improving the efficiency of production and operation of anisotropic composite materials. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova, 2010, no. 3, pp. 6-10. (In Russian).

3. EN 1996: (Eurocode 6). Design of masonry structures. Part 3: Simplified calculation methods and simple rules for masonry. Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry. Brussels. 1996. 39 p.

4. Donchenko O. M., Degtev I. A. Deformation of the masonry at the ñentral compression short. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova, 2013, no. 3, pp. 44-46. (In Russian).

5. Rayzer V. D. For the valuation of the bearing capacity of masonry. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy, 1990, no. 2, pp. 80-86. (In Russian).

6. Naumov A. E., Yezhechenko D. A. The influence of non-homogeneous mortar bed on NDS (stressed and strained state) of centrally compressed brickwork. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2007, no. 8, pp. 46-48. (In Russian).

7. Naumov A. E. A local approach to the determination of the stress-strain state of the ñentral compressed masonry. Vestnik BGTU im. V. G. Shukhova, 2010, no. 1, pp. 98-102. (In Russian).

8. Pisarenko G. S., Lebedev A. A. Deformirovanie i prochnost' materialov pri slozhnom napryazhennom sostoyanii [Deformation and strength of materials under complex stress state]. Kiev, Naukova dumka Publ., 1976. 415 p. (In Russian). - Prediction Of Diameter Of Soil-Cement Columns On The Basis Of Results Of Full-Scale Experiments
- UDC 624.1

**Alexey G. MALININ**, e-mail: info-ips@yandex.ru

Inzhproektstroy, Stroitelnaya Kompaniya,Komsomolskiy ul., 34, Perm 614000, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. In recent times the jet grouting technique of soils got wide distribution in the course of solving such complex problems of underground construction as strengthening of weak soils under building foundations, construction of deep excavation walls, horizontal and vertical ground water cutoffs etc. The jet grouting technique is the most efficient at enlarged diameters of soil-cement columns. The diameter of soil-cement columns is one of the most important design parameters and prediction of their diameters presents the greatest difficulty when developing the designs of jet grouting. The purpose of this work is the construction of empirical dependences for prediction and substantiation of the diameter of soil-cement columns on the basis of experimental works carried out by the author at numerous objects. The article offers an empiric formula for predicting the diameter of soil-cement columns built in clay soils which can be a base for selecting appropriate technological equipment.

**Key words**: soil-cement columns, design of column diameter, full-scale experiments, jet grouting. - REFERENCES

1. Malinin A. G. Struynaya tsementatsiya gruntov [Jet grouting soil]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2010. 226 p. (In Russian).

2. Kutzner Christian. Grouting of Rock and Soil. Rotterdam: Brookfield, 1996. 271 p.

3. Buonaiuto Sergio. Tecniche di consolidamento del terreno: manuale pratico per una corretta esecuzione dei lavori. Palermo: D. Flaccovio, 2014. 304 p.

4. Geotechnical engineering handbook edited by Ulrich Smoltczyk. Vol. 3: Elements and Structures. Germany: Ernst & Sohn, 2003. 646 p.

5. Ground Improvement. Third edition edited by Klaus Kirsch and Alan Bell. USA: CRC Press, 2013. 501 p. - CONSTRUCTION SAFETY
- On The Issue Of Fire Hazard Of Aluminum-Composite Panels For Hinged Facade Systems
- UDC 614.841

**Natalja I. KONSTANTINOVA**, e-mail: konstantinova_n@inbox.ru

**Nikolay V. SMIRNOV**, e-mail: firelab_vniipo@mail.ru

All-Russian Research Institute for Fire Protection, VNIIPO, 12, 143903 Moscow region, Russian Federation

**Absreact**. Issues of the evaluation of the suitability of constructions of facade systems for their using in construction from the point of view of fire safety are considered. Features of the manufacturing technology of aluminum-composite panels (ACP) and the analysis of the main factors influencing on the characteristics of their fire hazard are presented. Experimental research data on the fire hazard of ACP used in hinged facade systems are also presented. The possibility and expediency of carrying out the study for identifying ACP on the basis of such parameters as the heat of combustion and thermal decomposition and thermo-oxidation characteristics obtained according to the curves of thermal analysis of the material of a filler layer are established. The assessment of these parameters makes it possible to predict, with greater probability, the behavior of ACP under the fire exposure not only within the frames of standard tests but also in the course of comparative identification using the method of thermal analysis according to GOST R 53293-2009.

**Key words**: hinged facade systems, aluminum-composite panels, characteristics of fire hazard, heat of combustion, thermal analysis. - REFERENCES

1. Glikin S. M., Kodysh E. N. Hinged facade system with effective insulation and ventilated air gap. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2008, no. 9, pp. 36-37. (In Russian).

2. Khasanov I. R., Molchadskiy I. S., Gol'tsov K. N., Pestritskiy A. V. Fire danger hinged facade systems. Pozharnaya bezopasnost', 2006, no. 5, pp. 36-47. (In Russian).

3. Kosachev A. A., Gol'tsov K. N. Navesnye fasadnye sistemy s vozdushnym zazorom dlya teploizolyatsii i oblitsovki sten naruzhnykh s vneshney storony [Hinged facade system with an air gap for insulation and cladding exterior walls on the outer side]. Materialy ÕÕVI Mezhdunarodnoy nauch.-prakticheskoy konferentsii "Aktual'nye problemy pozharnoy bezopasnosti" [Actual problems of fire safety]. Moscow, 2014, pp. 263-270. (In Russian).

4. Khasanov I. R., Kosachev A. A., Konstantinova N. I., Gol'tsov K. N . Osobennosti pozharnoy opasnosti navesnykh fasadnykh sistem [Features fire danger hinged facade systems]. Sbornik trudov VNIIPO MChS Rossii. Moscow, VNIIPO Publ., 2012. pp. 102-128. (In Russian).

5. Molchadskiy O. I., Konstantinova N. I., Etumyan A. S. Fire danger aluminum composite panels. Pozharnaya bezopasnost', 2006, no. 5, pp. 48-51. (In Russian). - THE «INDUSTRIAL AND CIVIL ENGINEERING» FACULTY TO BUILDERS
- Study Of Key Parameters Of Impervious Structures
- UDC 624.131.6

**Vladimir M. MARGOLIN**, å-mail: vlad-margolin@yandex.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoye shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Protection of underground parts of buildings and structures under complex hydro-geological conditions is one of actual issues of construction. The choice of variants of protecting objects against ground water is of particular importance, when the objects are constructed under conditions of restrained urban conditions. Key parameters when assigning structural parameters of an anti-filtration wall constructed by the slurry wall method with due regard for the initial gradient of filtration have been studied. Normative documents don't take into account this gradient that influences on the accuracy of determination of structural parameters of the "wall". The study of parameters importance was conducted; methods of anti-filtration structures designing have been developed. There is a program for the computer which makes it possible, when characteristics of a material-filler, width of the "wall", permissible water inflow into the protected contour change, to determine the rational variant and efficiency of the wall for specified conditions. Efficiency of the structure is defined by the parameter which represents the relation of the single water inflow filtered through the "wall" and without it. On the basis of calculation results the tables and diagrams making it possible to select the most efficient constructive variant of the design have been made for practical application.

**Key words**: anti-filtration designs, initial gradient, calculation of key parameters, determination of efficiency, choice of rational option. - REFERENCES

1. Margolin V. M. Method of calculation of antifiltrational designs taking into account an initial gradient of a filtration. Osnovanija, fundamenty i mehanika gruntov, 1998, no. 4-5, pp. 37-42. (In Russian).

2. Margolin V. M. Definition of errors in calculations at design of the antifiltrational designs constructed by the "wall in soil" method and the recommendation about their improvement. Trudy mezhdunarodnoj konferencii "Podzemnyj gorod, geotehnologija i arhitektura", Saint Petersburg, 1998, pp. 275-280. (In Russian).

3. Ponomarenko Yu. V., Izotov A. A. Problems of building of anti-filtering screens and "slurry walls" when developing underground space on urban underflooded territories. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 1, pp. 43-45. (In Russian).

4. Golitsynsky D. M. On the issue of development of underground space of large cities and construction of traffic tunnels. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2012, no. 6, pp. 7-8. (In Russian). - Electrical Summation Of Strain Gage Sensors Signals
- UDC 69.07:624.072.2/4

**Dmitry A. BECKER**, e-mail: vonbeck@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoye shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Reducing the complexity and improving the quality of study of the stress-strain state of building structures is an important task. A method for connection of strain gage sensors, when they are symmetrically located on the studied element, is proposed. Strain gages are connected in series and regarded as one sensor with resistance spaced on different sides of the test element. This method makes it possible to realize the electric summation of signals from the sensors directly in the measuring circuit. As a result of this, the required quantity of connecting wires and inputs of the measuring instrument reduces twice. This makes it possible to significantly simplify and accelerate the installation of metering scheme. When portable measuring instruments with autonomous power supply and a limited number of measuring inputs are used, the proposed scheme makes it possible to increase the number of measuring points of deformation twice in comparison with the number of measuring inputs of the instrument. The results obtained represent the methodological novelty and will find application in practice.

**Key words**: strain gage, Wheatstone bridge, electrical signals summation, series connection of the sensors. - REFERENCES

1. http://www.ni.com/white-paper/3642/en (äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ:/accessed 20.09.2014).

2. http://www.findpatent.ru/patent/13/136084.html (äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ:/accessed 29.10.2014).

3. http://www.zetlab.ru/catalog/programs/zetlab/ descriptions/tenzometer/podkl_rezist.php (äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ:/accessed 29.10.2014).

4. http://sntbul.bmstu.ru/file/out/616606 (äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ:/accessed 29.10.2014).

5. Glagovskiy B. A., Piven I. D. Elektrotenzometry soprotivleniya [Electrosensory resistance]. Leningrad, Energiya Publ., 1972. 88 p. (In Russian).

6. Gruzdev S. V., Proshin E. M. Impul'snaya tenzometriya [Pulse strain measurement ]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1976. 88 p. (In Russian).

7. Malinovskyi V. N. Digital measuring bridges. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1976. 192 p. (In Russian). - ENERGY RESOURCE SAVING
- Definition Of Heat Losses With Leaving Gases When Making-Out A Thermal Balance Of Condensation Boilers
- UDC 656.56

**Pavel A. KHAVANOV**, e-mail: ttgs@mgsu.ru

**Julia G. MARKEVICH**, e-mail: jukram@mail.ru

**Anatoliy S. CHULENYOV**, e-mail: roverton@mail.ru

Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoye shosse, 26, Moscow 129337, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Considered and analyzed heat engineering parameters condensing boilers in autonomous heating systems. The technique of testing condensing boilers. The estimation of the expected total value of the rms error in determining the efficiency of the heat generator. Submitted resulting cumulative process, cooling and dehumidification in the flue gas condensing boilers on the chart id combustion products. Given the analysis of the condensing boilers and built process id or permit an assessment of the proportion of the heat of condensation of water vapor from the combustion products in relation to the maximum possible in any mode of operation. In article the main assumptions when modeling process of heat exchange with application of condensation coppers are formulated and the technique of research of work of condensation coppers which allows to detail components of thermal balance of a copper is presented. The technique allows to define not only efficiency of a copper, but also allows to give an assessment of a share of warmth of condensation of water vapor from combustion products in relation to greatest possible in any operating mode.

**Key words**: condensation boiler, thermo-technical parameters, heat exchange, heat balance, energy efficiency. - REFERENCES

1. Trembovlya V. I. Teplotekhnicheskie ispytaniya K.U. [Thermal testing K. U.] Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1977. 296 p. (In Russian).

2. http://ru.teplowiki.org/wiki/Êîíäåíñàöèîííûé êîòåë (accessed 01.12.2014). (In Russian).

3. Ravich M. B. Toplivo i effektivnost' ego ispol'zovaniya [The fuel and the efficiency of its use]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971. 358 p. (In Russian).

4. Sokolov B. A. Kotel'nye ustanovki i ikh ekspluatatsiya [Boilers and their operation]. Moscow, Akademia Publ., 2008. 432 p. (In Russian).

5. Khavanov P. A., Markevich Y. G. Thermal conditions of use of condensing boilers in the Autonomous heat supply systems. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Povolzh'ya, 2013, no. 6, pp. 479-481. (In Russian).

6. Khavanov P. A., Markevich Y. G. Thermal modes of operation of the heating surfaces of condensing boilers, low power. Nauchnoe obozrenie, 2013, no. 9, pp. 98-101. (In Russian). - UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION
- Engineering Protection Of Metro Wells In Event Of Ground Construction In Their Protected Zone
- UDC 624.19.059.3

**Alexsander P. LEDIÀEV**,**Alexsander N. KONKOV**,**Anatoliy L. NOVIKOV**,**Dmitry A. SOLOVIEV**

Petersburg State Transport University of Emperor Alexander I, Moskovskij pr., 9, Sankt-Peterburg 190031, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. Lack of free territories for building in St. Petersburg leads to the necessity of construction on the sites situated over operating metro structures. The development located in the protected zone of the metro can significantly influence on the stress-strain state and operational reliability of underground structures. Such influence frequently leads to increase in deformation of underground structures, appearance of cracks and other defects in the lining, increase in watering due to changes in the groundwater regime. As a consequence, the loss of operational reliability of structures, irregularities in the safe and smooth operation of the metro, significant unscheduled expenses for the repair of damaged structures. Thus it is necessary to take measures aimed at eliminating specified negative consequences of over-ground construction at the stage of designing of an object. The article formulates the algorithm of operations during the construction of ground objects in the protected zone of wells and presents the examples of engineering protecton of operating wells of the St. Petersburg Metro. Monitoring of technical conditions of the enclosing sheeting around wells, top and bottom well heads and underground structures of the metro in the course of arranging the pile field, pile grids and in the process of the building erection confirmed the efficiency of designer protection measures.

**Key words**: construction above metro objects, bore wells, protected zones, influence estimation, engineering protection, enclosing sheeting. - REFERENCES

1. Ledyaev A. P., Novikov A. L. Evaluation of the influence of the multifunctional commercial complex construction on the underground structures of "Lomonosovskaya" metro station. Izvestija Peterburgskogo universiteta putej soobshhenija, 2009, no. 2, pp. 20-39. (In Russian).

2. Benin A. V., Konkov A. N., Kavkazsky V. N., Novikov A. L. Evaluation of the influence of construction in a security zone of the metro on underground structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2011, no. 5, pp. 23-26. (In Russian).

3. Garber V. A. Metropoliten. Dolgovechnost' tonnel'nykh konstruktsiy v usloviyakh ekspluatatsii i gorodskogo stroitel'stva [Metro. Tunnel construction durability in condition of maintenance and urban construction. Moscow, VNIITS Publ., 1998. 172 p. (In Russian).

4. Sushkevich Y. I. [et al.] Tonneli metropolitenov. Ustroystvo, ekspluatatsiya i remont [Metro tunnels. Arrangement, operation and reparation. and others. Moscow, OOO "Metro and tunnels" Publ., 2009. 463 p. (In Russian).

5. Ledjaev A. P., Benin A. V., Konkov A. N., Novikov A. L., Petrov V. A. Three-dimensional modeling of foundation ditch and surrouding building designs. Transport construction, 2009, no. 10, pp. 13-16. (In Russian).

6. Elizarov S. V., Benin A. V., Petrov V. A. Staticheskie i dinamicheskie raschety transportnykh i energeticheskikh sooruzheniy na baze programmnogo kompleksa COSMOS/M [Static and dynamic calculations of transport and energy structures based on software complex COSMOS/M. St. Petersburg. Typography "Ivan Fedorov" Publ., 2004. 260 p. (In Russian). - FOREIGN EXPERIENCE
- Design Peculiarities Of Hydraulic Structures And Aggregate Buildings Of The First Hydroelectric Power Stations In Poland
- UDC 627.8

**Frantishek SVITALA**, e-mail: sgasu@samgasu.ru

**Yulia M. GALITSKOVA**, e-mail: galickova@yandex.ru

**Sergey V. EVDOKIMOV**, e-mail: sali5@mail.ru

Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Molodogvardejskaja ul., 194, Samara 443001, Russian Federation

**Abstract**. On the example of Poland, the development plan of power industry providing an increase in the share of the electric power consumed from renewable power sources is considered. As environmentally friendly power sources such types which are capable to provide quickly enough demanded increase in rated capacity and power generation are considered. In Poland the power plants meeting these requirements are small hydroelectric power stations, and also wind power installations, photo-electric and biogas stations. Such types of power plants can be built in quite short terms with the smallest negative impacts to environment, and provide reliable power supply both of network and independent consumers of energy. Problems facing the power men of Poland can be solved by studying the experience in construction of low-capacity power plants, accumulated experience in technology development, constructive decisions and the power equipment used earlier. Importance of development of small hydropower for further increase in power generation in Poland is considered. It is noted that good traditions developed in the territory of Pomorze on use of such renewable source of energy, as potential and kinetic energy of streams and small rivers. Features of designs of hydraulic structures and aggregate buildings of the first hydroelectric power stations of Poland in Pomorze are analyzed.

**Key words**: hydroelectric power plant, hydraulic structure, renewable power sources, conduit, hydroturbine. - REFERENCES

1. Svitala F., Evdokimov S. V. Cascades of small hydroelectric power stations of Poland. Energoaudit, 2007, no. 1, pp. 36-37. (In Russian).

2. Bal'zannikov M. I., Elistratov V. V. Vozobnovlyaemye istochniki energii. Aspekty kompleksnogo ispol'zovaniya [Renewables. Aspects of complex use]. Samara, SGASU Publ., 2008. 331 p. (In Russian).

3. Bal'zannikov M. I. Power installations on the basis of renewables and feature of their impact on environment. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitelnogo universiteta. Ser. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura, 2013, vol. 31(50), ch. 1, pp. 336- 342. (In Russian).

4. Bal'zannikov M. I., Evdokimov S. V., Galitskova Yu. M. Development of renewable power - an important contribution to ensuring environment protection. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2014, no. 3, pp. 16-19. (In Russian).

5. Bal'zannikov M. I., Piyavskii S. A. Hydraulic accumulation of the electric power with use of small pumped storage power plants. Nauchnoe obozrenie, 2014, no. 6, pp. 90-96. (In Russian).

6. Balzannikov M. I., Kurmanaev A. L. Using Flow Guiding Devices in the Rainwater Construction of the Hydropower Installation [Èñïîëüçîâàíèå âîäîïðîâîäÿùèõ óñòðîéñòâ â ãèäðîýíåðãåòè÷åñêèõ óñòàíîâêàõ]. Eastern European Scientific Journal (Gesellschaftswissenschaften): Dusseldorf (Germany): Auris Verlag. 2014, no. 2, pp. 282- 286. (In Germany).

7. Bal'zannikov M. I., Rodionov M. V., Seliverstov V. A. Increase of ecological safety of the operated soil hydraulic engineering constructions. Vestnik SGASU. Ser. Gradostroitel'stvo i arkhitektura, 2011, no. 1, pp. 100-105. (In Russian).

8. Evdokimov S.V. The new designs of power installations on the basis of RES providing efficiency and reliability of their work. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 2010, no. 8, pp. 35-38. (In Russian).

9. Evdokimov S.V. Problems of safety of building of the power installations accumulating nonconventional (renewable) power sources Vestnik SGASU. Ser. Gradostroitel'stvo i arkhitektura, 2012, no. 2, pp. 68-74. (In Russian).

10. URL: http://pomorskie.travel/ru/Odkrywaj-Trassy- M_rshrut_P_m_tnik_v_gidr_texniki-Spichlerze_i_m_yny/ 1707/Zabytkowa_Ku_nia_Wodna (accessed 10.10.2014).

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12. Svitala F. Small hydroelectric power stations on Slupiya's river. Malaya energetika, 2005, no. 1-2, pp. 45-47. (In Russian).

13. URL: http://pomorskie.travel/ru/Odkrywaj-Trassy- M_rshrut_P_m_tnik_v_gidr_texniki-Obiekty_na_szlaku/ 2624/Elektrownia_wodna_Krzynia_na_S_upi. (accessed 10.10.2014).